electrical 1/4/24 – gtg

TIP! Ensure that your caulking isn’t cracked, worn, separating, or in otherwise poor condition. Periodically check the caulking around your bathtub and sink.


TIP! When did you last look over every door handle in the home you live in? These handles shine a great deal and can make a great impact on the way your house looks. Switch out the door handles in your house and put in some brass handles.

Regardless of your skill or knowledge level, it can be fun and rewarding to engage in home improvement projects. Avoid being tricked by home improvement television shows. Big jobs aren’t the only home improvement jobs. This can even be entertaining, find out how.

TIP! Make sure you get the right measurements for blinds before purchasing or installing them. You can’t buy the right blinds if you don’t know the proper dimensions.

Porches need repainting at times. Use paint that is specified for exteriors and is of good quality. Make sure that you use similarly based paints together, such as putting a new oil-based paint over an old one. Likewise, match water-based or latex paints together when putting a new coat over an old one. Oil-based products are perfect for trim because of their longevity, but they should not be applied to decks or outdoor flooring, because it gets slippery in inclement weather.

TIP! Consider installing a shower if there is not one in your home already. Showers are more accessible than tubs. Instead of going it alone in the vast world of home improvement, hit up your relatives and friends for advice. If you delay asking for help until the project has already begun, it might be hard to get someone to help. You might have a hard time finishing on time, which would add more stress.

TIP! If the cabinets in your kitchen need to be refinished and you do not have the funds, consider refacing them as opposed to replacing them. It can be very expensive to replace kitchen cabinetry.

Re-caulking the windows in your home will help you save on utility bills. This will ensure that no moisture or drafts leak through from the outside, preventing mold growth and reducing your heating bills. If your caulking is cracked, you can remove it by taking a chisel to it and replacing it.

TIP! Re-decorate your bathroom easily and cheaply. Buying new towels, a shower curtain, and a bath mat is a very easy way to give your bathroom a new look.

Devise a plan for getting rid of your debris. Home improvement projects, mainly those that require some kind of large improvement, make a lot of trash that can get in the way if you’re not sure where you’re going to put it before starting. Lease a dumpster or find someone who has a large truck to help you clear the debris out so you can continue.

TIP! If considering a wood-burning fireplace, consider the downside. Compared with other systems, a wood-burning fireplace retains heat far less efficiently.

As this article already said, home improvement is a great thing for anyone to do. While it’s good to be an expert at home improvements, knowing basic information is helpful. Keep all of the tips fresh in the front of your mind and start chopping away at the needed jobs once they’ve had time to soak.

Thank you for dropping by our electrical services website. We are an extremely reliable and skilled service company and we consider every job and call we get to be the most important because we are aware of the significance of an urgent situation resulting from any power, plumbing system, and/or HVAC trouble you may have. We take pride in our job and feel strongly about building relationships with our customers. We have many completely satisfied and repeat patrons, and would love to include you in our long list of pleased customers. We give 24-hour repair service. It doesn’t matter if it’s regular maintenance or emergency repairs, We will send expert, reliable specialists to fix it promptly! With the high price of today’s devices and equipment systems, you need to have assurance in your repair service provider. We deliver premier quality, trusted repair solutions for your business systems. You can trust our qualified specialists to fix it swiftly and repair it properly. Our success is attributed to our professional personnel and the excellent customer care we give. Our strongest and most important resources are our team players: our staff is what makes us fantastic. Our business is organized to satisfy the repair and installment requirements of today’s customers. Our intention is to be THE BEST IN THE SERVICE INDUSTRY. Our aim is to give the highest possible quality of work and ensure that our clients receive exceptional service.


TIP! Before you start your DIY home improvement tasks, be sure to make a step-by-step list of what it will take to accomplish each part of your plan. Also, seek out advice from someone who knows about these sorts of things in order for you to get the most out of the project.

So, you decided that you want to start improving your home. That is great! There is a lot of hard work involved to improve your home properly. Do you have all of the correct information to do the job correctly? If you do not, you need to read the tips in this article.

TIP! Ask a clerk or manager about discounting supplies you will be needing, at their supply or home improvement store. Sometimes discontinued items can be had for a good price.

When you’re looking for some help with a home improvement project, try to have a backup in case your go-to helpers aren’t all that helpful. As the famous saying dictates, never put your eggs in 1 basket. This can help you to improve the chance for success during your project.

TIP! You need to give a thought to the context of your neighborhood before you engage in extensive remodeling work. If your home is the only Victorian in a neighborhood of saltbox cottages, it will look out of place.

When you think of home improvements, consider how long any new appliances you buy will last. Refrigerators generally last twenty years or longer, but washers and dryers have a life span of just over ten years. Therefore, whenever you perform any renovation to your home, you should carefully select your appliances.

TIP! Before you begin your home improvements, devise a solid plan. Before starting your project, it is best to have all your costs mapped out along with the time it should take you.

Free up some space on your nightstands and end tables by choosing a floor lamp instead of a table lamp. These free-standing lamps are easy to move around, whereas table lamps require lots of surface space. Pick a lamp that has a good design that you could appreciate.

TIP! Cover your floors while painting. Doing so can prevent paint from staining floors or carpets.

People think their houses will sell for more if they install a new central vacuuming system or underfloor radiant heating. Meanwhile, they forget to paint the exterior of the home or repair the shutters that hang crooked. Potential buyers are sure to notice these issues and will leave your home thinking it is a handyman’s special. Keep in mind that the first impression of your home is important.

TIP! Keep trees and shrubs from being too close to your home. Their roots could cause issues with the foundation of your house.

If you are looking to make improvements to your home and don’t know how to do it, these tips should put you on the right path. This is good news! If you still feel puzzled, you may find it helpful to reread this list of tips.

Thank you for checking out our electrical services website. We are a very dependable and experienced company and handle every job and phone call we receive as it is the most important because we understand the significance of an urgent situation resulting from any electrical, plumbing system, and/or HVAC problem you may have. We take pride in our work and feel strongly about establishing partnerships with our customers. We have many satisfied and repeat patrons, and would like to include you in our long list of happy consumers. We provide 24-hour repair service. It doesn’t matter if it’s standard service or critical repairs, we will dispatch skilled, trustworthy specialists to take care of it swiftly! With the high price of today’s appliances and equipment systems, you need to have assurance in your repair specialist. We deliver top-quality, trustworthy repair solutions for your company systems. You can trust our qualified experts to fix it quickly and fix it right. Our success is attributed to our skilled workers and the outstanding customer care we supply. Our greatest and most valued assets are our team players: our workers are what makes us great. Our firm is organized to fulfill the repair and installment demands of today’s clients. Our aim is to be THE BEST IN THE SERVICE MARKET. Our aim is to supply the best quality of work and ensure that our clients get excellent service.




Solar energy is the light and the heat from the sun. Solar energy is free and its supplies are unlimited. There is no air and water pollution caused by using solar energy. But there are still some impacts on the environment, although indirect. Photovoltaic cells used to convert sunlight into electricity use silicon and also produce some waste materials. There are also large solar thermal farms and these farms can also be harmful to the environment and desert ecosystems if not properly managed. Solar energy can be used in different aspects. Solar energy can be used in agriculture. Greenhouses (which are entirely different from greenhouse gases) convert solar light to heat to maximize enhancing the growth of plants and crops. Greenhouses have been around since Roman times, and modern greenhouses were built in Europe in the 16th century.

Greenhouses are still an important part of horticulture nowadays. Daylight systems are also being used to maximize the energy released by the sun. It is used to provide interior illumination, replacing artificial lighting. Daylight systems include sawtooth roofs, light shelves, skylights, and light tubes. Daylight systems, when they are properly implemented, can reduce lighting-related energy consumption by 25 percent.

Solar energy can also be developed into solar thermal technologies, which can be used for water heating, space heating, space cooling, and process heat generation. Solar energy can also be used to distill water and make saline or brackish water potable or drinkable. Solar water disinfection, or SODIS, involves exposing water-filled plastic polyethylene terephthalate or PET bottles. This process takes a long time since the exposure time varies on the weather conditions. It requires a minimum of six hours to two days during days with overcast conditions. Currently, there are two million people in developing centuries use SODIS for their daily drinking water needs.

Also, sunlight can be converted into electricity using photovoltaics or PV. PV has been mainly used to power small and medium-sized things like a calculator powered by a single solar cell. There are homes powered by photovoltaics. Using solar energy for water and space heating is the most widely used application of solar energy. While ventilation and solar air heating are also growing in popularity.

There are three main ways to use solar energy. The main way of using and converting solar energy is by using solar cells. Solar cells convert light directly into electricity. Solar cells are also called photovoltaic or photoelectric cells. Meanwhile, solar furnaces use a huge array of mirrors to concentrate on the Sun’s energy in a small space and produce very high temperatures. Solar furnaces are also called solar cookers. A solar cooker can be used in hot countries to cook food. With all the benefits of using solar energy, there is still a downside to this alternative energy source. It does not work during nighttime. The cost of setting up solar stations is expensive, but the benefit of using solar energy when accumulated is so much more.



Electrical Contractor

A seasoned electrical contractor can make all the difference when you find yourself in need of wiring services. At our electric services company, we put our experience to work for you, and we’re committed to accuracy in every task we take on. Locally owned and operated, we’re proud to lend our electrical knowledge to our community. No matter the size or extent of your wiring demands, we’re up for any challenge.

High-Quality Services
Arriving promptly and prepared for the business at hand, we’ll assess your wiring requirements and devise a strategy. From telephone and cable outlet installation to home theatre wiring or short circuit repair, we’ll go out of our way to get the job done right.

When you’re ready to hire an electrical contractor, look no further than our company.



1/4/24 electrical – gtg





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Conservation Of Charge
Not only was Benjamin Franklin the first to recognize positive and
negative charges, but also that electricity is an energy that is
captured, not created. This is a principle known as the
“conservation of charge. ”

There is a saying that “Faith is like electricity. You can’t see
it, but you can see the light. ” You can have faith that we’ll keep
your lights working!

Lightning Fish
It’s apparent that as early as the 15th century, connections were
made between lightning and the discharges from electric fish. Arabs
named the electric ray “raad, ” which was their word for lightning.

For Those About To Sew…
Did you know that the Australian rock band AC/DC got their name
from a label on their sister’s sewing machine? (In those days, some
regions supplied AC electricity while other areas had DC, so many
appliances specified what they could handle. )

Ain’t Superstitious
The words “electric” and “electricity” first appeared in print in
Thomas Browne’s 1646 publication, Pseudodoxia Epidemica, or Vulgar
Errors, a work that refuted the common superstitions and errors of
his time.

Rubbing Amber
Curious ancient Greeks used to experiment with amber and
discovered that rubbing it long enough would produce electric
sparks. Thus, the word “electricity” derives from the Greek word
for amber, which is “electron. ”

A Penny For A Laugh
“Electricity can be dangerous. My nephew tried to stick a penny
into a plug. Whoever said a penny doesn’t go far didn’t see him
shoot across that floor. I told him he was grounded. ” ~ Tim Allen

“If it weren’t for electricity we’d all be watching television by
candlelight. ” ~ George Goba

Cycle Breaker Boxes
To avoid corrosion, it is a good practice to turn the breakers in
your breaker box off and on at least once a year.


Commercial Electrical Contractors – Installation, Service & Repair
For more then 30 years, our company has brought a new standard of professionalism and performance to a wide variety of commercial electrical contracting projects throughout the Southeast of the United States. From schools to multifamily homes to office buildings, we have the capability to design and complete the commercial electrical project you need!

Providing Simple to Complex Commercial Electrical Contracting Services
Our company offers a full line of commercial electrical project services, including design, repair, and maintenance. Our full-service approach and extensive experience have proven time and time again why we are the leaders in the commercial electrical service industry. With an exceptional reputation in the industry, we have designed and completed numerous complex and unique projects to date.

Please take a look at our past Commercial Electrical Projects:
New Commercial Buildings
Tenant Buildouts
Value Engineering Projects
Bucket Truck Work
24-hour Service
Surge Protection
Copy Machine Circuits
Parking Lot Lighting
Sub-panel Additions
Lamp and Ballast
Green Lighting
Free Estimates
Dedicated Computer
Meter Can Repairs


We are an incredibly reliable and expert Service Company and treat every job and phone call we get like it is the most important because we recognize the implication of an unexpected emergency resulting from any electrical, plumbing system, and/or HVAC trouble you may have. We take pride in our work and believe highly in developing partnerships with our clients. We have numerous pleased and repeat patrons, and would love to include you in our extensive list of pleased customers. We give 24-hour repair service. It doesn’t matter if it’s standard service or unexpected repairs, we will send highly trained, trustworthy technicians to take care of it swiftly! With the high cost of today’s devices and equipment systems, you need to have assurance in your repair company. We supply premier quality, reliable repair solutions for your company systems. You can trust our educated technicians to fix it quickly and take care of it properly. Our success is attributed to our qualified staff and the superb client care we provide. Our greatest and most valuable resources are our team players: our staff is what makes us exceptional. Our firm is organized to meet the repair and installation requirements of today’s clients. Our goal is to be THE BEST IN THE SERVICE BUSINESS. Our objective is to provide the greatest quality of work and guarantee that our consumers get excellent service.


We are a very reliable and professional Service Company and treat every job and call we receive like it is the most important because we understand the significance of an emergency resulting from any electrical, plumbing, and/or HVAC issue you may have. We take pride in our work and believe strongly in building relationships with our customers. Call Us First For Quality & Customer Satisfaction Guaranteed Service Specialists

Well-trained & Educated Emergency Service Available Pride in workmanship. We have many satisfied and repeat customers and would love to include you in our long list of satisfied customers. We offer 24-hour repair service. It doesn’t matter if it’s routine maintenance or emergency repairs, we will send experienced, reliable technicians to fix it fast! With the high cost of today’s appliances and equipment systems, you need to have confidence in your repair provider. We offer top-quality, dependable repair services for your business systems. You can trust our trained technicians to fix it fast and fix it right. Our success is attributed to our expert staff and the excellent customer care we provide. Our strongest and most valuable assets are our team players: our staff is what makes us great. Our company is organized to meet the repair and installation needs of today’s customers. Our objective is to be THE BEST IN THE SERVICE INDUSTRY. Our goal is to provide the highest quality of work and ensure that our customers receive excellent service.

Master Electrical Technicians at your service! We provide solutions for your electrical and wiring projects. Our services cover everything from residential to commercial, interior/exterior, new wiring, electrical maintenance and troubleshooting. No matter what your electrical needs are, we have the right solution, at the right price.

Professional Plumbing Services you can COUNT ON! Not only will you encounter expertly trained plumbing technicians, but also technicians who are trained to deliver a tailored and unique service experience. This experience includes treating you and your home with respect. Many of our customers look to us as their preferred plumbing service provider.

Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Residential & Commercial Sales Service & Installation
We offer installation, service, and repair for both Residential and Commercial buildings, 24 hours/7 days, and Emergency Service. We can handle all of your heating, ventilation and air conditioning needs, from the smallest repair to complete installations. We work on all makes & models and guarantee your satisfaction when we are done. We offer 24-hour emergency service, reasonable rates, and Free Estimates on installations. Call us when you need service on Heat Pumps, Gas, Oil, Hot Water or Electric Heat, Humidifiers, Air Cleaners, Gas Boilers, and more. We can promise that you are getting the best job done and the best prices possible. Power Plus Services offers top-quality, dependable repair service for your home and business systems. You can trust our trained technicians to fix it fast and fix it right.

Our company is dedicated to providing you with the best available service and a 1 hour RESPONSE Time. We use modern methods to achieve the highest standards of safety and productivity. If, for any reason, you are not satisfied with our work, we will return to re-diagnose and repair, if necessary, at no additional cost. Customer satisfaction is important to us. We are fully committed to working with you 100%. We are fully licensed and bonded. We are also fully insured with liability insurance of $1,000,000.


Lighting or illumination is the deliberate application of light to achieve some aesthetic or practical effect. Lighting includes the use of both artificial light sources such as lamps and natural illumination of interiors from daylight. Daylighting (through windows, skylights, etc. ) is often used as the main source of light during daytime in buildings given its low cost. Artificial lighting represents a major component of energy consumption, accounting for a significant part of all energy consumed worldwide. Artificial lighting is most commonly provided today by electric lights, but gas lighting, candles, or oil lamps were used in the past, and still are used in certain situations. Proper lighting can enhance task performance or aesthetics, while there can be energy wastage and adverse health effects of poorly designed lighting. Indoor lighting is a form of fixture or furnishing and a key part of interior design. Lighting can also be an intrinsic component of landscaping. Lighting fixtures come in a wide variety of styles for various functions. The most important functions are as a holder for the light source, to provide directed light and to avoid visual glare. Some are very plain and functional, while some are pieces of art in themselves. Nearly any material can be used, so long as it can tolerate the excess heat and is in keeping with safety codes. An important property of light fixtures is the luminous efficacy or wall-plug efficiency, meaning the amount of usable light emanating from the fixture per used energy, usually measured in lumen per watt. A fixture using replaceable light sources can also have its efficiency quoted as the percentage of light passed from the “bulb” to the surroundings. The more transparent the lighting fixture is, the higher its efficacy. Shading the light will normally decrease efficacy but increase the directionality and the visual comfort probability. Lighting is classified by intended use as general, localized, or task lighting, depending largely on the distribution of the light produced by the fixture. Task lighting is mainly functional and is usually the most concentrated, for purposes such as reading or inspection of materials. For example, reading poor-quality reproductions may require task lighting levels up to 1500 lux (150 footcandles), and some inspection tasks or surgical procedures require even higher levels. Accent lighting is mainly decorative and intended to highlight pictures, plants, or other elements of interior design or landscaping. General lighting (sometimes referred to as ambient light fills in between the two and is intended for general illumination of an area. Indoors, this would be a basic lamp on a table or floor or a fixture on the ceiling. Outdoors, general lighting for a parking lot may be as low as 10-20 lux (1-2 footcandles) since pedestrians and motorists already used to the dark will need little light for crossing the area. Downlighting is most common, with fixtures on or recessed in the ceiling casting light downward. This tends to be the most used method, used in both offices and homes. Although it is easy to design, it has dramatic problems with glare and excess energy consumption due to a large number of fittings. Uplighting is less common, often used to bounce indirect light off the ceiling and back down. It is commonly used in lighting applications that require minimal glare and uniform general illuminance levels. Uplighting (indirect) uses a diffuse surface to reflect light in a space and can minimize disabling glare on computer displays and other dark glossy surfaces. It gives a more uniform presentation of the light output in operation. However indirect lighting is completely reliant upon the reflectance value of the surface. While indirect lighting can create a diffused and shadow-free light effect, it can be regarded as an uneconomical lighting principle. Front lighting is also quite common but tends to make the subject look flat as it casts almost no visible shadows. Lighting from the side is less common, as it tends to produce glare near eye level. Backlighting either around or through an object is mainly for accent. Forms of lighting include alcove lighting, which, like most other uplighting, is indirect. This is often done with fluorescent lighting or rope light, or occasionally with neon lighting. It is a form of backlighting. Soffit or close-to-wall lighting can be general or a decorative wall wash, sometimes used to bring out texture (like stucco or plaster) on a wall, though this may also show its defects as well. The effect depends heavily on the exact type of lighting source used. Recessed lighting (often called “pot lights,” “can lights,” or ‘high hats”) is popular, with fixtures mounted into the ceiling structure so as to appear to flush with it. These downlights can use narrow beam spotlights, or wider-angle floodlights, both of which are bulbs having their own reflectors. There are also downlights with internal reflectors designed to accept common ‘A’ lamps (light bulbs) which are generally less costly than reflector lamps. Downlights can be incandescent, fluorescent, HID (high-intensity discharge), or LED. Track lighting, invented by Lightolier, was popular at one point because it was much easier to install than recessed lighting, and individual fixtures are decorative and can be easily aimed at a wall. It has regained some popularity recently in low-voltage tracks, which often look nothing like their predecessors because they do not have the safety issues that line-voltage systems have, and are therefore less bulky and more ornamental in themselves. A master transformer feeds all of the fixtures on the track or rod with 12 or 24 volts, instead of each light fixture having its own line-to-low voltage transformer. There are traditional spots and floods, as well as other small hanging fixtures. A modified version of this is cable lighting, where lights are hung from or clipped to bare metal cables under tension. A sconce is a wall-mounted fixture, particularly one that shines up and sometimes down as well. A torchiere is an uplight intended for ambient lighting. It is typically a floor lamp but may be wall-mounted like a sconce. The portable or table lamp is probably the most common fixture, found in many homes and offices. The standard lamp and shade that sits on a table is general lighting, while the desk lamp is considered task lighting. Magnifier lamps are also task lighting. The illuminated ceiling was once popular in the 1960s and 1970s but fell out of favor after the 1980s. This uses diffuser panels hung like a suspended ceiling below fluorescent lights, and is considered general lighting. Other forms include neon, which is not usually intended to illuminate anything else but to actually be an artwork in itself. This would probably fall under accent lighting, though in a dark nightclub, it could be considered general lighting. In a movie theater, each step in the aisles is usually marked with a row of small lights for convenience and safety when the film has started. Hence, the other lights are off. Traditionally made up of small low-wattage, low-voltage lamps in a track or translucent tube, these are rapidly being replaced with LED-based versions. Street Lights are used to light roadways and walkways at night. Some manufacturers are designing LED and photovoltaic luminaires to provide an energy-efficient alternative to traditional street light fixtures. Floodlights can be used to illuminate outdoor playing fields or work zones during nighttime hours. The most common types of floodlights are metal halide and high-pressure sodium lights. Beacon lights are positioned at the intersection of two roads to aid in navigation. Security lights can be used along roadways in urban areas, or behind homes or commercial facilities. These are extremely bright lights used to deter crime. Security lights may include floodlights. Entry lights can be used outside to illuminate and signal the entrance to a property. These lights are installed for safety, security, and for decoration. Underwater accent lighting is also used for koi ponds, fountains, swimming pools and the like. Commonly called ‘light bulbs,’ lamps are the removable and replaceable portion of a luminaire that converts electrical energy to both visible and non-visible electromagnetic energy.

Specialists who work with lighting carefully avoid energetic units for measuring the light output of sources of light due to the spectral response of human visual perception. For example, instead of watt per steradian, the special unit candela is used; 1 candela=(1/683) W/steradian for monochromatic light at 555 nmwavelength. Common characteristics used to evaluate lamp quality include efficacy measured in lumens per watt, typical lamp life measured in hours, and Color Rendering Index on a scale of 0 to 100. The cost of replacement lamps is also an important factor in any design. Lighting design, as it applies to the built environment, also known as ‘architectural lighting design,’ is both a science and an art. Comprehensive lighting design requires consideration of the amount of functional light provided, the energy consumed, as well as the aesthetic impact supplied by the lighting system. Some buildings, like surgical centers and sports facilities, are primarily concerned with providing the appropriate amount of light for the associated task. Some buildings, like warehouses and office buildings, are primarily concerned with saving money through the energy efficiency of the lighting system. Other buildings, like casinos and theatres, are primarily concerned with enhancing the appearance and emotional impact of architecture through lighting systems. Therefore, it is important that the sciences of light production and luminaire photometrics are balanced with the artistic application of light as a medium in our built environment. These electrical lighting systems should also consider the impacts of, and ideally be integrated with, daylighting systems. Factors involved in lighting design are essentially the same as those discussed above in energy conservation analysis.

For simple installations, hand calculations based on tabular data can be used to provide an acceptable lighting design. More critical or optimized designs now routinely use mathematical modeling on a computer. Based on the positions and mounting heights of the fixtures, and their photometric characteristics, the proposed lighting layout can be checked for uniformity and quantity of illumination. For larger projects or those with irregular floor plans, lighting design software can be used. Each fixture has its location entered, and the reflectance of walls, ceiling, and floors can be entered. The computer program will then produce a set of contour charts overlaid on the project floor plan, showing the light level to be expected at the working height. More advanced programs can include the effect of light from windows or skylights, allowing further optimization of the operating cost of the lighting installation. The Zonal Cavity Method is used as a basis for both hand, tabulated, and computer calculations. This method uses the reflectance coefficients of room surfaces to model the contribution to useful illumination at the working level of the room due to light reflected from the walls and the ceiling. Simplified photometric values are usually given by fixture manufacturers for use in this method. Computer modeling of outdoor flood lighting usually proceeds directly from photometric data. The total lighting power of a lamp is divided into small solid angular regions. Each region is extended to the surface that is to be lit, and the area is calculated, giving the light power per unit of area. Where multiple lamps are used to illuminate the same area, each one’s contribution is summed. Again, the tabulated light levels (in lux or foot candles) can be presented as contour lines of constant lighting value overlaid on the project plan drawing. Hand calculations might only be required at a few points, but computer calculations allow a better estimate of the uniformity and lighting level. Practical lighting design must take into account the gradual decrease in light levels from each lamp owing to lamp aging, lamp burnout, and dirt accumulation on fixtures and lamp surfaces. Empirically established depreciation factors are listed in lighting design handbooks. Luminance is a photometric measure of the density of luminous intensity in a given direction. It describes the amount of light that passes through or is emitted from a particular area and falls within a given solid angle. The SI unit for luminance is candela per square meter (cd/m2). The CGS unit of luminance is the stilb, which is equal to one candela per square centimeter or 10A kcd/m2. To define light source color properties, the lighting industry predominantly relies on two metrics, correlated color temperature (CCT), commonly used as an indication of the apparent aswarmthat or ascoolnessat of the light emitted by a source, and color rendering index (CRI), an indication of the light source’s ability to make objects appear natural. However, these two metrics, developed in the last century, are facing increased challenges and criticisms as new types of light sources, particularly light-emitting diodes (LEDs), become more prevalent in the market. For example, in order to meet the expectations for good color rendering in retail applications, research suggests using the well-established CRI along with another metric called gamut area index (GAI). GAI represents the relative separation of object colors illuminated by a light source; the greater the GAI, the greater the apparent saturation or vividness of the object colors. As a result, light sources that balance both CRI and GAI are generally preferred over ones that have only high CRI or only high GAI. Typical measurements of light have used a Dosimeter. Dosimeters measure an individual’s or an object’s exposure to something in the environment, such as light dosimeters and ultraviolet dosimeters.

In order to specifically measure the amount of light entering the eye, a personal circadian light meter called the Daysimeter has been developed. This is the first device created to accurately measure and characterize light (intensity, spectrum, timing, and duration) entering the eye that affects the human body’s clock. The device is a small, head-mounted device that measures an individual’s daily rest and activity patterns, as well as exposure to circadian light, particularly natural light from the blue sky that stimulates the circadian system. The device measures activity and light together at regular time intervals and electronically stores and logs its operating temperature. The Daysimeter can gather data for up to 30 days for analysis. Artificial lighting consumes a significant part of all electrical energy consumed worldwide. In homes and offices from 20 to 50 percent of total energy consumed is due to lighting. Most importantly, for some buildings over 90 percent of lighting energy consumed can be an unnecessary expense through over-illumination. The cost of that lighting can be substantial. A single 100 W light bulb used just 6 hours a day can cost over $25 per year to use (.12/kWh). Thus lighting represents a critical component of energy use today, especially in large office buildings where there are many alternatives for energy usage in lighting. There are several strategies available to minimize energy requirements in any building: Specification of illumination requirements for each given use area. Analysis of lighting quality to ensure that adverse components of lighting (for example, glare or incorrect color spectrum) are not biasing the design. Integration of space planning and interior architecture (including choice of interior surfaces and room geometries) to lighting design. Design of time of day use that does not expend unnecessary energy. Selection of fixture and lamp types that reflect the best available technology for energy conservation. Training of building occupants to use lighting equipment in the most efficient manner. Maintenance of lighting systems to minimize energy wastage. Use of natural light – some big box stores are being built (ca 2006 on) with numerous plastic bubble skylights, in many cases completely obviating the need for interior artificial lighting for many hours of the day. Load shedding can help reduce the power requested by individuals to the main power supply. Load shedding can be done on an individual level, at a building level, or even at a regional level. It is valuable to provide the correct light intensity and color spectrum for each task or environment. Otherwise, energy not only could be wasted but over-illumination can lead to adverse health and psychological effects. Specification of illumination requirements is the basic concept of deciding how much illumination is required for a given task. Clearly, much less light is required to illuminate a hallway or bathroom compared to that needed for a word-processing workstation.

Prior to 1970 (and too often even today), a lighting engineer would simply apply the same level of illumination design to all parts of the building without considering usage. Generally speaking, the energy expended is proportional to the design illumination level. For example, a lighting level of 80 footcandles might be chosen for a work environment involving meeting rooms and conferences, whereas a level of 40 footcandles could be selected for building hallways. If the hallway standard simply emulates the conference room needs, then twice the amount of energy will be consumed as is needed for hallways. Unfortunately, most of the lighting standards even today have been specified by industrial groups who manufacture and sell lighting, so a historical commercial bias exists in designing most building lighting, especially for office and industrial settings. Beyond the energy factors being considered, it is important not to over-design illumination, lest adverse health effects such as headache frequency, stress, and increased blood pressure be induced by the higher lighting levels. In addition, glare or excess light can decrease worker efficiency. Analysis of lighting quality particularly emphasizes the use of natural lighting but also considers spectral content if artificial light is to be used. Not only will greater reliance on natural light reduce energy consumption, but will favorably impact human health and performance.

New studies have shown that the performance of students is influenced by the time and duration of daylight in their regular schedules. Designing school facilities to incorporate the right types of light at the right time of day for the right duration may improve student performance and well-being. Similarly, designing lighting systems that maximize the right amount of light at the appropriate time of day for the elderly may help relieve symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease. The human circadian system is entrained to a 24-hour light-dark pattern that mimics the earth’s natural light/dark pattern. When those patterns are disrupted, they disrupt the natural circadian cycle. Circadian disruption may lead to numerous health problems including breast cancer, seasonal affective disorder, delayed sleep phase syndrome, and other ailments.

In 1849, Dr. Abraham Gesner, a Canadian geologist, devised a method where kerosene could be distilled from petroleum. Earlier coal-gas methods had been used for lighting since the 1820s, but they were expensive. Gesner’s kerosene was cheap, easy to produce, could be burned in existing lamps, and did not produce an offensive odor as did most whale oil. It could be stored indefinitely, unlike whale oil, which would eventually spoil. The American petroleum boom began in the 1850s. By the end of the decade, there were 30 kerosene plants operating in the United States. The cheaper, more efficient fuel began to drive whale oil out of the market. John D. Rockefeller was most responsible for the commercial success of kerosene. He set up a network of kerosene distilleries, which would later become Standard Oil, thus completely abolishing the need for whale oil lamps.

Compact fluorescent lamps (aka ‘CFLs’) use less power to supply the same amount of light as an incandescent lamp. Due to the ability to reduce electric consumption, many organizations have undertaken measures to encourage the adoption of CFLs. Some electric utilities and local governments have subsidized CFLs or provided them free to customers as a means of reducing electric demand. For a given light output, CFLs use between one-fifth and one-quarter of the power of an equivalent incandescent lamp. One of the simplest and quickest ways for a household or business to become more energy efficient is to adopt CFLs as the main lamp source, as suggested by the Alliance for Climate Protection.

LED lamps have been advocated as the newest and best environmental lighting method. According to the Energy Saving Trust, LED lamps use only 10% power compared to a standard incandescent bulb, where compact fluorescent lamps use 20% and energy saving halogen lamps 70%. A downside is still the initial cost, which is higher than that of compact fluorescent lamps. However, when the life expectancy and other factors are incorporated, regular LEDs are not more costly than CFL lamps. General Electric began producing organic LEDs for architectural use in 2010.

From a military standpoint, lighting is a critical part of the battlefield conditions. Shadows are good places to hide, while bright areas are more exposed. It is often beneficial to fight with the Sun or other light source behind you, giving your enemy a disturbing visual glare and partially hiding your own movements in the backlight. If natural light is not present searchlights and flares can be used. However, the use of light may disclose your own hidden position and modern warfare has seen increased use of night vision through the use of infrared cameras and image intensifiers. Flares can also be used by the military to mark positions, usually for targeting, but laser-guided and GPS weapons have eliminated this need for the most part.

The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) is an international authority and standard-defining organization on color and lighting. Publishing widely used standard metrics such as various CIE color spaces and the color rendering index. The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), in conjunction with organizations like ANSI and ASHRAE, publishes guidelines, standards, and handbooks that allow the categorization of the illumination needs of different built environments. Manufacturers of lighting equipment publish photometric data for their products, which defines the distribution of light released by a specific luminaire. This data is typically expressed in a standardized form defined by the IESNA. The International Association of Lighting Designers (IALD) is an organization that focuses on the advancement of lighting design education and the recognition of independent professional lighting designers. Those fully independent designers who meet the requirements for professional membership in the association typically append the abbreviation IALD to their name.

The Professional Lighting Designers Association (PLDA), formerly known as ELDA is an organization focusing on the promotion of the profession of Architectural Lighting Design. They publish a monthly newsletter and organize different events throughout the world. The National Council on Qualifications for the Lighting Professions (NCQLP) offers the Lighting Certification Examination which tests rudimentary lighting design principles. Individuals who pass this exam become Lighting Certified and may append the abbreviation LC to their name. This certification process is one of three national (U. S. ) examinations (the others are CLEP and CLMC) in the lighting industry and is open not only to designers, but to lighting equipment manufacturers, electric utility employees, etc. Generally speaking, there is no legal or practical requirement for the lighting design team to possess the certifications discussed.

The Professional Lighting And Sound Association (PLASA) is a trade organization representing 500+ individual and corporate members drawn from the technical services sector. Its members include manufacturers and distributors of stage and entertainment lighting, sound, rigging and similar products and services, and affiliated professionals in the area. They lobby for and represent the interests of the industry at various levels, interacting with government and regulating bodies and presenting the case for the entertainment industry. Example subjects of this representation include the ongoing review of radio frequencies (which may or may not affect the radio bands in which wireless microphones and other devices are used) and engaging with the issues surrounding the introduction of the RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive) regulations.

The electrical power industry provides the production and delivery of electrical power (electrical energy), often known as power, or electricity, in sufficient quantities to areas that need electricity through a grid. Many households and businesses need access to electricity, especially in developed nations, the demand being scarcer in developing nations. Demand for electricity is derived from the requirement for electricity in order to operate domestic appliances, office equipment, and industrial machinery and provide sufficient energy for both domestic and commercial lighting, heating, cooking, and industrial processes. Because of this aspect of the industry, it is viewed as a public utility as infrastructure.

The electrical power industry is commonly split up into four processes. These are electricity generation such as a power station, electric power transmission, electricity distribution and electricity retailing. In many countries, electric power companies own the whole infrastructure from generating stations to transmission and distribution infrastructure. For this reason, electric power is viewed as a natural monopoly. The industry is generally heavily regulated, often with price controls and is frequently government-owned and operated. The nature and state of market reform of the electricity market often determine whether electric companies are able to be involved in just some of these processes without having to own the entire infrastructure or whether citizens choose which components of infrastructure to patronize. In countries where electricity provision is deregulated, end-users of electricity may opt for less costly green electricity.

All forms of electricity generation have positive and negative aspects. Technology will probably eventually declare the most preferred forms, but in a market economy, the options with less overall costs generally will be chosen above other sources. It is not clear yet which form can best meet the necessary energy demands or which process can best solve the demand for electricity. There are indications that renewable energy and distributed generation are becoming more viable in economic terms. A diverse mix of generation sources reduces the risks of electricity price spikes. Although electricity had been known to be produced as a result of the chemical reactions that take place in an electrolytic cell since Alessandro Volta developed the voltaic pile in 1800, its production by this means was, and still is, expensive. In 1831, Michael Faraday devised a machine that generated electricity from rotary motion, but it took almost 50 years for the technology to reach a commercially viable stage. In 1878, in the US, Thomas Edison developed and sold a commercially viable replacement for gas lighting and heating using locally generated and distributed direct current electricity. The world’s first public electricity supply was provided in late 1881 when the streets of the Surrey town of Godalming in the UK were lit with electric light. This system was powered by a water wheel on the River Wey, which drove a Siemens alternator that supplied a number of arc lamps within the town. This supply scheme also provided electricity to a number of shops and premises. Coinciding with this, in early 1882, Edison opened the world’s first steam-powered electricity generating station at Holborn Viaduct in London, where he had entered into an agreement with the City Corporation for a period of three months to provide street lighting. In time he had supplied a number of local consumers with electric light. The method of supply was direct current (DC). It was later on in the year, in September 1882, that Edison opened the Pearl Street Power Station in New York City, and again, it was a DC supply. It was for this reason that the generation was close to or on the consumer’s premises as Edison had no means of voltage conversion. The voltage chosen for any electrical system is a compromise. Increasing the voltage reduces the current and, therefore, reduces resistive losses in the cable. Unfortunately, it increases the danger from direct contact and also increases the required insulation thickness. Furthermore, some load types were difficult or impossible to make for higher voltages.

Additionally, Robert Hammond, in December 1881, demonstrated the new electric light in the Sussex town of Brighton in the UK for a trial period. The ensuing success of this installation enabled Hammond to put this venture on both a commercial and legal footing, as a number of shop owners wanted to use the new electric light. Thus the Hammond Electricity Supply Co. was launched. While the Godalming and Holborn Viaduct Schemes closed after a few years the Brighton Scheme continued on, and supply was in 1887 made available for 24 hours per day. Nikola Tesla, who had worked for Edison for a short time and appreciated the electrical theory in a way that Edison did not, devised an alternative system using alternating current. Tesla realized that while doubling the voltage would halve the current and reduce losses by three-quarters, only an alternating current system allowed the transformation between voltage levels in different parts of the system. This allowed efficient high voltages for distribution where their risks could easily be mitigated by good design while still allowing fairly safe voltages to be supplied to the loads. He went on to develop the overall theory of his system, devising theoretical and practical alternatives for all of the direct current appliances then in use, and patented his novel ideas in 1887, in thirty separate patents. In 1888, Tesla’s work came to the attention of George Westinghouse, who owned a patent for a type of transformer that could deal with high power and was easy to make. Westinghouse had been operating an alternating current lighting plant in Great Barrington, Massachusetts since 1886. While Westinghouse’s system could use Edison’s lights and had heaters, it did not have a motor. With Tesla and his patents, Westinghouse built a power system for a gold mine in Telluride, Colorado, in 1891, with a water-driven 100 horsepower (75A kW) generator powering a 100 horsepower (75A kW) motor over a 2.5-mile (4A km) power line. Almarian Decker finally invented the whole system of three-phase power generating in Redlands, California in 1893. Then, in a deal with General Electric, which Edison had been forced to sell, Westinghouse’s company went on to construct the Adams Power Plant at Niagara Falls, with three 5,000 horsepower (3.7 MW) Tesla generators supplying electricity to an aluminum smelter at Niagara and the town of Buffalo 22 miles (35A km) away. The Niagara power station commenced operation on April 20, 1895. Tesla’s alternating current system remains the primary means of delivering electrical energy to consumers throughout the world.

While high-voltage direct current (HVDC) is increasingly being used to transmit large quantities of electricity over long distances or to connect adjacent asynchronous power systems, the bulk of electricity generation, transmission, distribution and retailing takes place using alternating current. There has been a movement towards separating the monopoly parts of the industry, such as transmission and distribution sectors from the contestable sectors of generation and retailing across the world. This has occurred prominently since the reform of the electricity supply industry in England and Wales in 1990. In some countries, wholesale electricity markets operate, with generators and retailers trading electricity in a similar manner to shares and currency.


IV AC Content 12/5/23 – gtg

Most, if not all, HVAC technicians in training will be required to take a test before they are allowed to begin working in their chosen field. Testing can be intimidating for many people, but it need not prevent you from beginning your career!

The examination students are required to take may vary depending on the institution or program they have studied with. They may be administered online or in person and include knowledge assessment as well as mathematical and other types of evaluation. Depending on the program, you may also be required to demonstrate proficiency with a practical skills test; this is more common in situations where apprenticeship has been a component of the learning process.

What to Read Up On
Generally, the materials covered can be reasonably expected to include controls, troubleshooting, repair, and mechanical tools, including the fundamentals of refrigeration, basic HVAC systems, and the installation processes. The material may also include questions on fluid flow and heat transfer theory, as well as motor components and function. For a complete list, refer to the study guide for the test you plan to take.

Memorization Techniques
As with any test, it is important to ensure that you retain the information you have worked so hard to learn. In general, students perform better on tests when they begin preparing far before the testing date; this allows time for the information to become stored in their long-term memory bank, which is more likely to be retained and useful during the test. If you have difficulty with traditional study methods, recite and record material out loud and play it back via a tape recorder, or ask a friend to quiz you randomly on the material.

Before the Test
Don’t make the mistake of cramming before your examination! Take at least 24 hours before the exam and put down your books entirely. This is often the last thing students wish to do. They feel unprepared and suspect that desperate cramming will improve their chances of success, but this is simply not the case. Science has shown that individuals who take a 24-hour rest period before testing retain information more efficiently and that you’re unlikely to retain what you’ve studied the night before anyway!

Testing Skills
Many students feel that they test poorly when in reality, they do not possess good testing skills. As a future HVAC technician, think of your test as an intricate mechanical puzzle you need the skill to solve it, just as you will need the skill to do your job properly! Read questions thoroughly and consider every answer choice before selecting the best one on multiple-choice examinations. Read critically, and make educated guesses when uncertain of the correct answer. Don’t leave the question blank! With the right skills and tools, prospective HVAC technicians should have no problem passing their examinations and joining the workforce. After all, lots of others have already done so!


We are a family-oriented HVAC company dedicated to leading the industry in cost-efficient, high-quality products and the best technological innovations. In addition, we are dedicated to making installation and service a pleasure while embracing the Green Building movement and supporting the environment.

Company History

Our HVAC company was founded in 1920. We introduced our first line of pumps for commercial use. We also opened a second manufacturing center for fabricated products. The 1990s brought our Learning Center for improved employee productivity and the inclusion of Sweet Controls, which expanded the electronic control product line. Today, the company is operated by the grandson of the original founder.

Products and Services
We manufacture products for residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional use to ensure maximum comfort year-round. Our huge array of products includes water circulation pumps and circulators, hydronic accessories, air elimination and control, heat transfer products, electronic controls, innovative and web-based iWorks for light commercial use, design tools, and variable speed products. There is something for everyone, whether the customer needs to outfit a school with the perfect heating and cooling system or provide the perfect refrigeration and climate controls to a supermarket. We have offered up some of the most unique technological innovations in the industry, including the Load Match system, a green hydronic heating and cooling system that increases energy efficiency and saves money. In addition, our award-winning LoFlo system is also used for green building to reduce pump usage and pipe size in heating and cooling units. This system obtained an honorable mention award from Dealer Design and is known for enabling more precise cooling temperatures. These are just a few great technological innovations our company has brought to the heating, ventilation and air conditioning industry.

Energy Efficient Systems
We have a wide range of energy-efficient systems and components that save money and energy, perfect for individuals building eco-friendly homes. The Load Match and LoFlo systems are both energy efficient, meaning they use less energy to operate than the traditional systems. Because they use less energy, they also save the homeowner money on their utility bills. In addition, some homeowners can obtain tax credits using high-efficiency products from our HVAC company.

Where Our Products are Installed
A number of commercial and residential customers have our HVAC products installed in their facilities and homes. We recently helped a State University out with a satellite chiller plant, complete with our pumps and a custom-built 4900 Air-Dir Separator, which is the largest unit built by us to date. A slew of our products have been installed in a convention center to help keep visitors cozy and comfortable no matter what time of year it is. We are a leading HVAC provider and work to embrace the green movement, which is so important to the planet’s future. With our products all over North America, we help make climate control possible for many people while keeping costs down and values high.


Air conditioners are special elements of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) units. It works just like the refrigeration unit to cool a building. These parts use chilled water or direct expansion coils. Therefore, there are many choices that you can go for. The types that use chilled water for air conditioning are usually chosen for larger commercial buildings. Both coils are often made of aluminum or copper because they are good conductors of heat. They easily pass heat to the refrigerant regardless of its type. The refrigerant is created in a way to absorb heat. It can also reject heat and includes the following components:

One of them is called a compressor. Different types of ACs use diverse compressors such as scroll, reciprocating, screw, rotary, and centrifugal. Another note is that these parts have varying capacities to match different applications. The working principle is quite simple. The compressor pumps the cool refrigerant vapor thus raising its temperature and pressure.

A condenser is another part of the air conditioning unit and its work is to embrace the refrigerant hot vapor from the compressor and immediately transform it into liquid by draining heat from it. While the refrigerant runs, it absorbs heat generated when air gets compressed as it passes through the air conditioner’s evaporator coils. The condenser’s main role is to reject the heat absorbed in the evaporator coil.

The metering device receives the liquid formed through condensation of the refrigerant. These devices can be described as thermostatic expansion valves and they gauge the refrigerants based on the quantity which is required to fulfill the demand. They also use capillary tubes and pistons to gauge any quantity of the refrigerant.

Regardless of the type you pick, the most imperative detail to ensure is that the item can reduce the pressure of the liquid refrigerant. If the pressure goes down, even the temperature levels will drop, and this creates a situation where the liquid is cold enough to enter the evaporator coil.

The evaporator coil plays a very imperative role in heat absorption. When air passes via the coil there is a heat exchange that occurs between the refrigerant and the air itself. So the refrigerant soaks up the heat which causes some of it to become steam. Generally, the evaporator coil is meant to remove latent heat. It also does sensible cooling by removing moisture from the air dropping the air temperature. The unit is fixed adjacent to the air handling unit or even within it to work optimally.

The above components are found in most air conditioner units that are available for sale. For instance, split systems, mainly used in all kinds of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning units, are very popular. They use an outdoor condensing unit with an air handler unit inside. Other major types include package units, which feature the compressor, condenser coil, furnace motor, evaporator coil and refrigerant fixed inside a metal box. You can also find mini splits, rooftop units, wall-mount units, through-wall units and so on.


The term forced air furnace or system is commonly used when speaking about HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air conditioning) systems. Forced Air systems are a good option when one wants to enhance the quality of air inside a building. There are many elements of an HVAC system that are dependent on it, including heat recovery ventilators, humidifiers, air cleaners, and so on. If a home uses radiant heat, a forced air system must be installed to facilitate proper air conditioning. The mechanism usually uses gas as the main firing aid. Even so, it is possible to find forced air systems that use other fossil fuels such as coal. Even electrically powered systems are available. Why should you install a forced air furnace? There are a few advantages that are associated with this type of furnace. Some include the following:

This type of furnace is known to achieve a higher efficiency than many other choices today. A forced air system is cheap and easy to install. Not only is it easily installed, but it is also stress-free to operate. It can be used to dehumidify the air if it has excessive moisture. It can allow you to add components that can further improve the air quality, including UV lights, air filters, humidifiers, etc. This is the only known air distribution system that can work with the central air conditioning unit. Even if the advantages to this mechanism are more than the ones outlined above, it has some demerits too. A few of them include the following. Since the unit requires constant filtration, one may be forced to keep changing air filters, which requires spending money. It could trigger some noises in the furnace. A person who needs to install a forced air furnace must look for a professional who can do ductwork quite well. When choosing furnaces, you may want to consider the differences in their efficiency.

Gas-forced air furnaces are the older versions that we have up until now. They use a thermostat to trigger heating. After that, the burners turn on to heat the combustion chamber located inside the system. As soon as the chamber is hot enough the circulation fan turns on. The cooler air passes via the chamber while gathering heat in the process. This heat is then taken via the ductwork and back to the house where people live. The cycle continues until the thermostat shuts down the heating and cooling process. Unlike the traditional forced air furnaces that used a standing pilot for igniting the burners on the trigger, today’s styles are electronically ignited.

Resuming our efficiency discussion, the term Annual Fuel Usage Estimate or AFUE describes an efficient or inefficient mechanism. Today there are direct furnaces that can attain an AFUE of ninety percent or more. Their combustion air is exited directly outdoors and the chambers are usually sealed to enhance proper control of the process. They have a heat exchanger for absorbing heat from the generated steam and later disposing it into the air.


HVAC technicians undergo rigorous training to understand the complex systems that make up central cooling and heating. Many go to college, or technical or trade schools to learn the basics behind HVAC installation and maintenance. However, many skills can be learned online through specialized training programs sponsored by HVAC professionals and community colleges. These programs have both pros and cons.

Pro: Focused Training
The HVAC training offered online is provided by many different groups including HVAC organizations and community colleges. These programs are specifically developed to help those interested in pursuing a career in HVAC installation and maintenance. They are thus designed to teach only those skills needed in the career. There is no extraneous information as many courses are tailored to correspond directly with certification tests and on-the-job issues HVAC technicians face. The programs cover everything from engineering to mechanics with subjects in everything from electronics to reading blueprints to equipment construction.

Con: Lack of Hands On
One of the most common complaints against online training in any technical field is a lack of direct or hands-on experience. HVAC training online does indeed lack the experience of direct contact with HVAC equipment, but that is only in the initial stages of training. Schooling is only meant to provide the theoretical and mathematical backgrounds that an HVAC technician will need in the field. The hands-on experience comes from apprenticeships, which even those with traditional education complete before becoming certified technicians.

Pro: Flexible Schedules and Individualized Pacing
In-person, HVAC programs can take up to two years to complete. The courses move steadily, but to accommodate all participants, the classes can move much more slowly than many students need. HVAC training online can proceed at an individual’s preferred pace, condensing a two-year course into as little as two months. Individuals can study and learn at their own pace. If one module or subject takes longer to process, the individual can slow down, but he or she is not forced to wait on other students when a subject comes more easily.

Con: Lack of Direct Oversight
Unlike classroom education, online training programs do not have an instructor sitting at the front of a classroom lecturing and peering over students’ shoulders. Instead, instructors build a subject module, which students access alone at their own convenience. This does not mean, however, that online training lacks oversight or even access to instructors. Students who have questions or concerns about a particular problem or module can email their instructor at any time. The instructor will respond within 24 hours and offer guidance in a much more indirect way.

Pro: Accredited Programs Available
Most companies require that an HVAC technician be trained at an accredited school and receive certification before applying for a job. Luckily, a number of the online training programs available for HVAC technicians are developed by accredited schools and even HVAC organizations. By finding the right program, an interested student need not go into debt to attend special colleges. These accredited online programs provide specialized training.

Overall, the pros of HVAC training online far outweigh the cons. To meet the unique and nontraditional needs of many seeking training in HVAC maintenance, online training offers a sufficient and welcome opportunity.


A duct system is a part of a heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system used to purify the air inside a building. First-time installers of this system should call an HVAC professional to create a design and recommend the best type of ducting. Other projects that might become necessary later on might include repairs or replacements of parts or the entire HVAC ductwork. As a result, it is important to gather many different tips regarding various systems to know when and how to troubleshoot them.

Duct installation tips
If you are a naturally technical expert, you may consider installing a new ductwork yourself. Safety comes first even if you are good at any technical job. Find do-it-yourself classes in your local area. Some stores provide lessons on how to install the ducting. If you are not sure where to start and do not want to employ someone you can go to class and learn how to do it. Get the right tools for the job, including a drill, hand tongs, a nut and screwdriver, cutters for sheet metal, hand snips, a tape measure, a tinners hammer, a bar fold tool, and so on. You can learn of the most imperative tools during your class attendance. Remember that the cuts must be accurate, and you cannot achieve this without proper tools. You must also use a tape measure to get the ductwork measurements right. You can measure two times if this is necessary. Write down the measurements as you derive them. Use the right HVAC designs and ductwork components such as stacks, heads, boots, start-offs, vibration isolators, terminal units, and so on. The trouble comes on the part of creating the correct design for your HVAC ductwork. If you cannot do the installation then feel free to spend some money on someone who can do a perfect job. You can use the internet to find local installation experts.

Ductwork cleaning tips
The United States Environmental Protection Agency recommends when it should be necessary to clean the ducting system. The EPA considers it needless to clean the system if, after a thorough virtual assessment of the inner parts of the ducts, you do not notice any signs of contamination. The contaminants include heaps of debris, molds, or damp or musty smell. You may decide to clean your system if: You are currently experiencing some breathing problems usually caused by the presence of molds, dust, and excessive dampness during sleep. The air in your rooms feels unclean and limited. Someone in your house has unusual allergies, sneezing, irritability, and other sickness symptoms. The cleaning procedure is intricate and calling a professional to help you is very much recommended. The cleaning methods are numerous and can vary, even if they all meet industry standards. The technical expert has to use certain tools to unblock various parts and later on use a strong vacuum cleaner on them. Some providers use given chemicals inside the ducting and they are meant for killing the living contaminants. Still, there is a group of service providers that make use of sealants to coat the inner of the air ducts and other housing units to keep molds from growing.


Our HVAC company is a family-oriented company that provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning solutions for residential, commercial and industrial use. The company is committed to providing the best business-to-customer and business-to-business solutions available.

About the Company
It was founded in 1946 with an importance on ethics and quality. We believe the ethical way is the only way to operate our business. Our products can be found worldwide, though we are a small company with an intimate and dedicated staff. Our products are also found in prestigious projects around the world, proof that a small company can have a far reach if its goals are formulated in the right way.

Products and Services
Our HVAC company provides air distribution solutions to residential, commercial, and industrial customers. Just a few of the products we provide include chilled beam alternatives, underfloor distribution products, grilles, diffusers, terminal units, and air coils. We also provide software to help select the best products and training for those who want to understand green building and those who want to consult an engineer before their next project. With a wide range of products and services, our company serves the entire HVAC industry.

Landmark Installations
Though a small company, we have a far reach. Our products are in many impressive projects, including the Guggenheim Museum in Spain. The Bank of China in Beijing and the International Space Station also boast our products. We are a major player in the global industry, and our products were chosen for these locations for a reason. The support found at our company is as much an important part of their services as the quality products they sell.

Environmental Consciousness
We are the founder of eco Shield, which is the industry’s first natural fiber installation, created from recycled denim. This isn’t the only eco-friendly product we have to offer, either. Many of our products are GreenSpec listed, including displacement ventilation products, chilled beams, underfloor units, diffusers, grilles, and more. We provide an entire line of products to environmentally conscious customers. We also commit to helping customers gain LEED credits with a wide variety of their products.

Technological Innovations
Our HVAC company is continuously innovative in the HVAC industry. The TFS and Fantom Intelligently Quiet fan-powered terminals are just two of the innovations the company has brought forth. These units are smaller, quieter, and less costly than traditional terminal units. We are also the creator of the #1 flow sensor on the market, the AeroCross, which is part of the terminal unit system. We are also responsible for the TDX ULTRA. This diffuser features the highest mixing ratio on the market and is designed to produce high and low-velocity zones where room air is induced and mixes rapidly. These are just a few of the innovations this company is responsible for.

Our HVAC company has strong roots and far-reaching limbs. Our products and services have placed us on the list of top HVAC companies in the US.


Water-source HVAC units are quickly gaining popularity over refrigerant-based units. Water is less expensive and less harmful than modern refrigerants, and it is a great heat conductor in many climate control systems. There are three main types of water source HVAC units on the market:

Geothermal Heat Pumps
Geothermal heat pumps are the most popular water source HVAC unit. These work by taking advantage of the heat generated deep within the Earth. The process of establishing a geothermal heat pump consists of placing pipes deep into the Earth to create a closed loop. Water traveling down through the pipes is then heated by the warmth of the Earth and pumped back to the surface to be used in HVAC applications. For extreme temperatures, however, a supplemental heating and cooling system may be necessary. Home heating, hot water, and even air conditioning can all be provided by geothermal heat pumps.

Chiller Units
Chillers are another example of water-source HVAC units. As their name implies, they chill the water traveling through pipes instead of heating it. Water source chillers use vapor compression technology to cool air and water effectively. Water compression works by tightly compressing water that has removed heat from surrounding space and moving it to an area where it can expand. The expanded water cools quickly and returns to the warm space to collect more heat. While this is a wonderful alternative to refrigerant-based systems, it does require an electric or gas-powered engine to pump the water through the loop.

Solar-Powered Heat Pumps
Another very popular alternative to a refrigerant-based heating and cooling system is a solar-powered heat pump. Because the sun’s energy is limitless, using this method to heat water pumped into a home is highly efficient. Solar panels absorb the sun’s heat, which is transferred to the direct loop or a reservoir like a hot water tank. On days when the sun isn’t enough to heat the water, a backup system, usually electric or gas-powered, makes up for what the solar panels cannot collect. In some industrial and commercial settings, a combination of these three HVAC units is necessary for all of the heating, cooling, and ventilation needs of a building. In industrial settings, geothermal heat pumps are used mainly for providing heated air to factories and foundries. For hot water, solar-powered heat pumps placed on the roofs of these large buildings do a great job of providing all that is needed. The geothermal heat pump is an auxiliary means of providing heated water at night and during cloudy days. Chiller units are used to provide cooled air and they efficiently de-humidify both large and small industrial spaces.

In conclusion, there is a water source HVAC unit for nearly every application and scenario. Water has long been known to conduct heat efficiently and cheaply to consumers. These HVAC units utilize water and basic physics to provide heating, cooling, and ventilation needs to homes worldwide. Whether geothermal or solar-powered, these units can save consumers money while working to save the environment.


Innovative and green technology, new construction, and the retrofitting of older homes and buildings have combined with a growing population to create an increasingly high demand for skilled heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) industry employees. Although there are too many variables to define a typical HVAC engineer job description precisely, the primary duties of these engineers are to design, manufacture, and test air conditioning, ventilation and heating equipment.

The Engineer as Designer
While still in the planning phase of construction, an HVAC engineer will perform calculations to predict how the structure will consume energy, and large construction projects often use several different types of designers or engineers to work cooperatively toward planning and providing the specifications for the HVAC system. Depending on the project size, a typical HVAC engineer job description may vary. Still, responsibilities usually include system design for new buildings and conducting studies or upgrades on systems in existing buildings to ensure optimal climate control, particularly in large office and industrial buildings where safe and healthy conditions depend on the regulation of temperature and humidity.

Testing, especially for heating and cooling loads and the energy consumption and requirements for a building, is almost always part of a typical HVAC engineer job description, and the ability to solve problems through the process of elimination by ruling out certain factors is crucial. Most modern testing tools are software applications, and most HVAC engineers use computers to run simulations of load calculations and energy performance, as well as software that will predict the pressure and temperatures inside pipes and ducts. Additionally, data logging and handheld devices that measure temperature and pressure are also used.

One of the most vital components of a typical HVAC engineer job description is working with mechanical contractors during construction to ensure systems are built and installed as intended. This part of the job may also include reviewing the design and system specifications, additional calculations and testing during the manufacturing process, and being responsible for cost estimates on all projects. Additionally, interpersonal skills, strong communication skills, and problem-solving skills are key for HVAC designers to effectively communicate with clients, contractors, and others involved in the manufacturing process.

Education and Advancement Opportunities
Most HVAC engineers possess a bachelor’s degree in either HVAC or mechanical engineering, and many are skilled in computer-aided drafting (CAD). Strong spatial intelligence is helpful, along with computer skills and experience with various industry-related software applications. Many HVAC engineers become senior engineers, start their own design and manufacturing businesses, or work as independent consultants. Advancement opportunities for the next 10 years or so are almost unlimited due to new technologies in the industry, new construction, and a constantly increasing population that has grown dependent on climate control.

Potential Income
Like HVAC service techs, those engineers who specialize will increase their potential for both income and advancement. Construction companies, mechanical contracting services, miscellaneous private businesses, and local, state, and federal government facilities typically hire HVAC engineers, particularly when seeking new and different ways to reduce the energy consumption of their HVAC systems. Those with a working knowledge of green technologies, such as solar, wind, and water-powered will also increase their opportunities, as will those familiar with computer-controlled smart systems. Overall, several duties are common to most HVAC engineers, but it is difficult to be too specific about what constitutes a typical HVAC engineer job description. These job descriptions not only differ according to the type of company and the size of a project but are also in a state of almost constant change due to innovative technologies that provide the impetus for new and improved designs of HVAC systems.


There is an industry maxim that states HVAC technicians have to be a combination of engineer and mechanic, and this is especially true of an HVAC leadman. While this qualification may not be listed in a typical HVAC leadman job description, these individuals must possess a thorough knowledge of the design aspects and mechanical and electrical components that comprise most HVAC systems and must also have the skills to supervise and motivate working crews of technicians.

Knowledge and Mechanical Skill Requirements
When considering the duties and characteristics required of a typical HVAC leadman job description, one of the most important is a certain level of spatial intelligence and an aptitude for mechanical systems. A good leadman will also possess comprehensive knowledge of the technical aspects of most climate control systems, along with the ability to perform testing, maintenance, and repairs on a wide range of models. Additionally, problem-solving skills, particularly the ability to resolve complicated problems challenging for crew technicians or mechanics, are crucial.

Motivational Skills and Additional Duties
Although specific job descriptions vary, a typical HVAC leadman job description will stress the importance of motivational and leadership skills, along with organizational skills, to effectively run projects of all sizes and to motivate and supervise a crew of up to 20 technicians, depending on the project size. Additionally, they may need to size and design piping systems and be familiar with OSHA safety regulations. An effective HVAC leadman will also possess excellent communication skills, as they will not only be working with crew members, but also with clients, building inspectors, and job or project superintendents. Bilingual skills are also desirable.

Education and Experience Required
A typical HVAC leadman job description will usually specify that the individual must have either seven years of experience in the field or three years of related experience and four years of federally approved training. The most desirable experience is in mechanical installation and repair, in addition to any legally required licenses and/or certificates for handling refrigerants. There are a variety of additional certifications and licenses available for various specialized areas in the industry, such as commercial refrigeration, or solar-powered HVAC systems.

Average Income
According to PayScale. com and SimplyHired. com, the typical Salary for an HVAC leadman in the United States is $52,482 $74,537, while the average salary is $67,000. Additionally, according to SimplyHired. com, the available HVAC leadman jobs have increased and are expected to grow. This projection is based on the increasing demand for new construction and retrofitting of older buildings, and the fact that many industry workers are nearing retirement age. As such, the projected salaries can be expected to increase proportionately.

The Future of an HVAC Leadman
In both the immediate and distant future, the typical HVAC leadman job description will include tasks that focus on a variety of ways to conserve energy consumption for both existing and new buildings. Rising energy costs have resulted in designing, building, and installing more efficient systems. Additionally, several newer technologies considered more environmentally friendly are already being installed and used. The HVAC leadman who can demonstrate knowledge and experience in these areas will be in greater demand for years. Overall, technological advances, new residential and commercial construction, retrofitting of older homes and businesses, and a continuously increasing population will most likely continue to provide increased employment opportunities for the HVAC leadman for some years.


Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) techs are tradespersons trained to install, maintain, and repair climate control systems. Although an HVAC service tech’s responsibilities may vary depending on a variety of such factors as regional climate, the type of company, and the individual employer, the typical HVAC service tech job description will usually include four basic duties: installation, troubleshooting, maintenance, and customer service/sales.

Installation and Troubleshooting
The typical HVAC Service Technician job description will require these individuals to follow specifications for installing different heating systems powered by a variety of fuels, in addition to air conditioning systems and heat pumps. They usually install air ducts and vents, pumps, and fuel and water supply lines. At this point, they often connect the unit to the electrical system and perform a variety of checks to ensure the unit is operating at a level of optimal efficiency and safety. HVAC technicians also diagnose and repair any malfunctioning units or components and perform routine maintenance.

Customer Service and Sales
Building strong and positive customer relationships is an integral part of a typical HVAC Technician job description, as the tech is usually the client’s only link to the company. Techs are commonly expected to sell service contracts to both new and existing clients. This system provides the client with an ongoing source of trusted, reliable, personalized service, prevents seasonal work overloads, and ensures revenue for the tech and/or their employer. As such, good customer relations are crucial for building and maintaining a customer base, as well as the trust and good will of clients.

Education Required
Heating, air, and refrigeration systems are becoming increasingly sophisticated and complex. As a result, many HVAC companies are finding that the job is beginning to require more than good mechanical aptitude and spatial intelligence. Although HVAC Technicians can still learn on the job, most employers now prefer to employ those who have completed a formal apprenticeship, or trade school/technical school training, and these programs often take between 6 months to two years to complete. Most branches of the armed forces also provide HVAC service tech training.

Physical Challenges
A significant proportion of physically demanding work is included in the typical HVAC service tech job description, and it usually requires sitting, standing, and walking, each about one-third of the time. However, there is also lifting, carrying, stooping, kneeling, crawling, climbing, balancing, and working in cramped or awkward positions. Depending on the employer and the job site, a tech is often exposed to extremes of temperature and dirty or dusty conditions. Additionally, there are potential respiratory hazards from dust, asbestos, and refrigerant, along with danger from electrical wires and/or flammable fuel lines.

Changes in the Works
The demand for qualified HVAC techs is expected to increase faster than the average for all other occupations. This increase is due to estimated replacement timeframes of old and malfunctioning equipment, in addition to the expected retirement of current techs and the increased complexity of newer systems. New technologies in solar energy, hydronics (water-based heating systems), and other green technologies, along with computer-controlled smart-home systems, will affect the typical HVAC service tech job description, as many techs will bring an increased skill set to the job and may limit themselves to the specialization of one particular aspect of the industry. HVAC techs are responsible for installing and maintaining temperature control systems. These techs are educated and skilled, and their jobs often take them to schools, apartment complexes, factories, nursing homes, and numerous other facilities where indoor climate control and air quality are integral for optimal comfort and health of the employees, visitors, and residents of these facilities. However, these jobs can be physically demanding, and potentially dangerous.


Society is constantly looking for the ultimate level of comfort. Underfloor heating systems originally designed for single rooms, such as master bathrooms are now being used in entire homes to provide heating and even air conditioning. Underfloor heating is a great option for office buildings, homes, hotels, and apartment complexes.

Electric Underfloor Heating
Electric underfloor heating is most often seen in single-room applications. Master bathrooms and single bedrooms benefit most from this type of heat source. The coils, carbon films, and pre-formed cable mats that carry the heat have a very low profile. For this reason, they can be installed directly under nearly any type of flooring. Electric underfloor units can only provide heat, however, and are not typically recommended for large or commercial spaces. Small, pre-fabricated underfloor units are easy to install and can completely change the thermal dynamics of nearly any space.

Hydronic Underfloor Heating and Cooling
Hydronic underfloor units can heat, cool and dehumidify a room. Hydronic units use pipes filled with heated or chilled water to provide climate control. Boilers and chillers are responsible for heating or cooling the water in the pipes, and an electric or gas-powered engine pumps the water through the closed loop. Hydronic underfloor systems are commonly seen in office and apartment applications to utilize spaces below floors further. When constructed, apartment and office buildings already have spaces under the floors for carrying cables, phone lines, and ductwork. This is the space where hydronic underfloor unit pipes are usually installed.

Underfloor heating is renowned for its ability to heat surfaces that would otherwise stay cool throughout the year. While modern forced-air HVAC systems are designed to be extremely efficient at heating and cooling, there is no comparison to adequately heated concrete, slate, and tile floors. This is especially true in bathrooms and master bedrooms. Underfloor heating is also a great option for areas susceptible to mold and mildew since closed water loops and electric wires are not conducive to their growth. Low-temperature underfloor units do not create burn or fire hazards since they do not occupy any wall space.

The efficiency of underfloor units has been debated for decades, but recent scientific studies have shown significant decreases in energy costs compared to other heating units. Several factors, including insulation ratings, depth of floor panels, and surface material characteristics, can all have a profound effect on the efficiency of underfloor units. Qualified designers and HVAC technicians are trained to consider these factors when recommending or installing underfloor units. There are many variations of these units for nearly any installation scenario. Although underfloor heating is a good option for nearly any space, several factors must be considered before and during installation. The pipes carrying heated and chilled water in hydronic settings will have some effect on wiring, pipes, and ductwork under the floor. It is important to insulate these things in order to prevent undesirable effects thoroughly. The floors themselves must be rated to withstand the shrinkage and expansion created by these types of units. Concrete, terrazzo, and tile all expand and contract with climate changes, so the correct underfloor unit at the correct temperature and depth must be considered. Underfloor heating and cooling units can be used in nearly any setting. With the correct design and installation, they can provide an unsurpassed level of comfort. Whether used in one room or throughout an entire home or building, underfloor heating in HVAC systems is a very effective and efficient method of providing nearly any type of climate control.


Ventilating an attic is extremely important throughout the year, regardless of the climate. There are many different techniques used for attic ventilation, including rafter vents, soffit vents, and attic fans. Ventilating attics with ridge vents is a more recent method that works with eave venting to improve the temperature and humidity within the attic.

Why Attic Ventilation Is Important
From hot, humid days to cold, windy nights, a well-ventilated attic can reduce energy costs and prolong the life of your home. A hot summer day can result in 160-degree temperatures inside an attic with poor ventilation. During the winter, a lack of ventilation retains the warmth inside the home. When the cold outside air meets the heated roof, condensation can occur inside the attic and could lead to moisture, dampness, or even water damage. Ice damming is a common winter problem associated with poor attic ventilation as well.

What Is a Ridge Vent?
Ridge vents are generally found on residential structures with shingled roofs and function with soffit vents to control the climate within the attic. Usually made of weather-resistant metal or durable plastic, the ridge vent is installed at the roof’s peak and runs along the entire length of the home. This type of attic ventilation is appealing because the vent is covered with shingles to blend into the roofline; making it an attractive option for modern homes. Some ridge vents include weather filters and baffles for increased efficiency.

How a Ridge Vent Works
Attractiveness isn’t the only reason more people ventilate attics with ridge vents. Studies have found that ridge vents, along with properly spaced eave vents, can drastically reduce energy costs in the summer and winter. An attic ventilation system creates a path that allows for continuous airflow and produces a cooling effect. Air is pulled through the soffit vents and flows out through higher vents. The design of a ridge vent allows air to flow across the roof peak, resulting in a Venturi effect that circulates even more air through the attic.

The Benefits of Ridge Venting
The unobtrusive appearance of ridge vents has already been mentioned, but there are many other benefits of ventilating attics with ridge vents. Unlike gable vents that work best when the wind moves in a particular direction, ridge vents are consistently effective regardless of the weather and wind. Because hot air rises, a ridge vent can remove the warmest air from the attic due to its position along the roof’s peak. Ridge vents can also provide balanced ventilation across the attic rather than a limited space. Ventilating attics with ridge vents is an effective way to protect your home and lower your energy costs. Most roofing companies are qualified to install ridge vents. The important thing to remember when ventilating attics with ridge vents is to include an adequate number of eave or soffit vents and to close off or remove any existing gable vents.


HVAC dampers play a strong role in controlling indoor heating and cooling. They are directly used by the heating and cooling units to reduce the air conditioning level to a section of the house that is not frequently used. Another common use for dampers is to minimize the airflow to the outside of a house, especially if they are installed at the chimney region. They are manual, electrical and pneumatic styles in the market today. Perhaps some of you already imagine that a damper is a complicated item. The truth is that the item is made of strong sheet metal materials that you know of, such as galvanized steel or aluminum. You truly need this item if you expect your HVAC System to operate optimally and last longer. If dampers are installed properly, they will help regulate heat, airflow, and humidity. If they are absent, you might have problems with mold, stuffy and musty air and imbalanced hot and cold spots in various rooms. Perhaps the main reason why you truly need to have someone fix these items is to cut back your monthly costs. As mentioned earlier, the item’s main role is to limit the air conditioning process to the areas frequently used by the people in your house. The areas that are rarely used do not require serious air cooling and heating, and you can manage to reduce your monthly energy bills as a result. These devices are categorized based on their main roles. Hence, you can find zone control styles that generally apply motorized capabilities. They can regulate airflow to any other part of the home, and each zone is often aligned directly with the motor. This is known to last longer because it consists of a coupler that limits the movement of other sections.

Another common type is called a backdraft damper, and it is known to allow one-way transmission of air. As a result, back-drafts are positioned on the wall facing a certain direction only and are mostly circular. The incoming air set to flow in a certain direction only forces the dampers to open and close when the gush of air is stopped. The closing mechanism denies any returning air from the opposite direction entry into the system. The type is perfect for heat exchangers, solar heaters and exhaust systems. They are installed uprightly or parallel and can be necessary when the electrically run dampers are available or not preferred for given reasons.

Economizer damper styles are part of the bigger and related Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning units. These enable air to flow from outside to the interiors of a building. Usually, this unit boasts two dampers: an outside damper and a return air damper. They are also known to reduce energy costs. Last but not least are the face and bypass dampers. Their main role is to regulate temperatures indoors via a cooling coil.


Heat pumps are energy efficient and reliable because they heat and cool simultaneously. As a result, you do not need to install two heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems to cool and heat your house. Today they are very much preferred to gas or oil furnaces by many homeowners who care about environmental pollution. Are you looking to cut back on your monthly power bills, and you live in moderately hot and cold climates? If so, use the heat pump instead of the older hvac unit.

Working mechanism of a heat pump
The underlying principle for the heat pump is heat transfer. Heat will naturally move from a point of high to a low concentration. Therefore, a pump is designed in a way to reverse this natural behavior such that it attempts to pull heat from where it is less concentrated to where it is more concentrated and vice versa. It generally gathers heat from a source and transmits it to a colder area or from a colder area to a hotter area. In short, it can heat and cool a house simultaneously.

The kinds of HVAC heat pumps available
There are many different types that you can choose but there are few that are popularly used by building owners. One of them is called an air source heat pump. This is alternatively called an air-air source. Its work is to absorb heat from the outer air and to pump it inside the house to provide the much-needed hot sensation. The parts that enable it to perform its job are very familiar coils that carry the refrigerant, which absorbs the heat being tapped from the outdoor air. Perhaps you are almost concluding that the air-source HP is only necessary for heating a home. The item can also be remodeled to work in a reverse direction so that it absorbs and dissipates heat from the indoor air. Most of them have a reversing valve to allow heating and cooling.

Another type of HP is called a Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP). Its working mechanism is quite different in that it sucks heat from an underground source and conveys it into the house. It can also absorb indoor heat and convey it into the ground. This is also called a geothermal heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning unit. Usually, it consists of piping loops put into the ground and water (refrigerant) is made to pass through them. A mixture of glycol and water is also used as a refrigerant for conveying heat. The pipes are buried about sixty to two hundred feet below the ground and configured in several ways. In a closed loop system, the piping loops are arranged horizontally or vertically. They can also be dipped into an underground water table or lake. In an open loop system, they must be dipped into an underground water pool established to exist.


Air handlers have many uses with HVAC systems. They have many uses, such as providing fresh air inside a house, and they are usually the main part of an air conditioning unit. The larger commercial buildings require big air handlers that can move up to ten thousand CFM. If you are thinking of buying an air handler unit, you need to find out more information about it. It has some parts that are described below.

Blower: Alternatively called a fan, a blower is often large and cage-like. It is propelled by an alternating current electric motor, and when it spins, it moves air. The item is known to run at multiple speeds or only one speed. It can also be propelled by the variable frequency drive, which increases the rate of airflow and its range. The residential AH styles, usually the air conditioners, use brushless direct current electric motors with variable speed options. The larger commercial buildings require a system that has many blowers simultaneously. These AHUs frequently consist of multiple blowers at one end, supply fans where the supply ductwork begins, and are further enhanced by return fans on the return air duct.

Filters: The air handler unit must contain air filters for sieving air before it enters the house to ensure it is clean for breathing. Many filters can work with an AH unit, such as electrostatic, High-Efficiency Particulate Arrestance or HEPA, pleated, fiberglass, and others. Two or more of these sieves can be used to ensure the incoming or returning air is completely clean. In short, course-grade and fine-grade filters must be used together. One of them can be the cheaper variety as you can replace it regularly to protect the other one. If you do not replace this item it could collapse because it cannot withstand the pressure from the blower.

Heating and cooling parts: the AHUs’ main role is to provide heating and cooling benefits and to do that, they need to have special parts. One of these parts includes the fuel burning heater which is also called the refrigeration evaporator. It is located in the air flow directly. The systems might also benefit from heat pumps and electric resistance elements. The whole thing depends on the kind of building in question. A big commercial AHU might include some coils for supplying vapor for heating and cold water for cooling. The vapor comes from the central furnace/boiler while the cold water comes from the central chiller. Your HVAC unit is unique and it should use unique air handlers too. The humidifiers are used to increase the moisture level in the air, especially in the colder areas. The indoor air is always hot to make the dwellers comfortable. As a result, the ever-heated air might be too dry, which could affect its quality. There are various types of humidification, including ultrasonic, vaporizers, evaporative and several others.


Licensing requirements for HVAC technicians and contractors vary widely from state to state, and a technician working in Texas might not be permitted to do the same job in another state. Below is an overview of some differing policies within the U. S. General Licensing Requirements. In general, most states require an HVAC technician to have undergone at least two years or 4,000 hours of training, and to pass a state examination. In some states, this education may be gained through an apprenticeship or on-the-job training, while other states require that the trainee attend a two-year college or trade school. States that do not require a specific form of training still generally require that certified technicians have taken a state-approved examination qualifying them for professional work.

Rigorous Policies
Some states have quite rigorous licensure requirements. California, for example, has no less than 43 regulations governing contractor licensing! HVAC contractors only need to obtain one of these licenses, however. The C20 can be acquired upon taking an examination and paying a $400 fee, but the prospective technician must also be able to prove that he or she has undergone at least four years of certified training. Technicians must also be bonded and undergo a background check run by the FBI.

Moderate Policies
States such as Washington and Oregon do not require prospective technicians to take a state-approved examination but expect HVAC contractors to have completed at least 4,000 hours of work in the field in which they are certified. In general, states with moderately lenient HVAC licensing regulations tend to have county and city laws that vary from place to place; these may enforce stricter policies than those dictated by state laws.

States that Do Not Require Licensing
Illinois is one of the few states that does not currently require licensing for HVAC technicians, but this may change in the near future. Several groups have been advocating different regulation and licensing policies to be adopted by the state, including some which are quite strict and others which appear more lenient. Because HVAC technician licensing is not required by the state, county, and city policies, vary widely, as each district must devise its own set of rules and regulations.

Determining the License Laws for Your State
Wherever you live, the best way to determine the licensing requirements for your state is to contact either the state regulatory agency (if there is one) or a local HVAC contractor who may be able to supply you with the resources and information that you need. Websites such as the one published by the National Contractor License Service also provide information on the contact information for regulatory services in every state. While licensing rules and regulations can seem intimidating, they have been put in place to protect home and business owners from poorly designed or installed HVAC systems and not to prevent technicians from making a living! With diligence and the appropriate attitude, a good technician should be capable of meeting regulatory requirements in any state.


York is one of the oldest HVAC companies in the world and boasts operations in more than 120 companies. A leader in the heating, ventilation and air conditioning industry, York is responsible for some of the most innovative technology in the last half-century. Providing services for residential, commercial and light industrial properties, York HVAC is a diverse company with a lengthy history.

History of the Company
York was started by six men, Jacob Loucks, Robert L. Shetter, Stephen Morgan Smith, George H. Buck, Henry H. LaMotte, and Oliver J. Bollinger, in the year 1874. The business became a partnership nearly ten years later when their first ice machine was created and sold to a customer in Mississippi. The first foreign office was opened in 1923 in London, and throughout the years, York became a private and public company numerous times. 1993 saw sales shoot past the $2 billion mark for the first time in company history, cementing the company’s role in the industry.

Products and Services
Residential York HVAC products include everything from air conditioners and furnaces to heat pumps and indoor air quality controls. Light commercial products range from packaged heating and cooling units to split systems, and both air and water-cooled indoor package units. Their industrial lines provide food and beverage refrigeration and controllers for supermarkets, restaurants and convenience stores. York HVAC provides one of the most comprehensive lines on the market and maintains more than 13,000 employees.

Technological Innovations
In the 1920s, York developed a refrigeration system for a small English dairy that grew to be the largest in the world. It helped make pasteurization a reality, saving huge amounts of waste. The company also created the first ice makers for hotels, restaurants and hospitals. The company saw huge success in the 1990s when chlorofluorocarbons were banned, and York had alternative cooling products that would help update home cooling systems, removing CFCs. The company has contributed greatly to the HVAC industry with brilliant innovations that helped fuel industry growth.

Energy Efficient Systems
York HVAC may not be the most outspoken company regarding environmental concerns, but a large part of the company has always been focused on creating more efficient systems. Many of their products contain the EnergyStar seal, meeting federal efficiency guidelines. Their high-efficiency products allow many residents to qualify for tax credits and enable customers to save money on energy costs. York is active with the Energy Efficiency Forum, the UNFCCC Climate Change Conference, and the Clinton Climate Initiative.

Landmark Installations
In 1992, York created a manufacturing plant for milk refrigeration units in Russia. The result eliminated about 80% of the annual milk spoilage, about half of the total milk produced. The company was also responsible for building a water-chilling system for the English Channel Tunnel and Norway’s largest ammonia refrigeration system. York HVAC has even designed and implemented heating and cooling systems for the US Capitol Building. York HVAC is among the most influential companies in the heating, ventilation and air conditioning industry. With companies in hundreds of countries and some of the most innovative technology in the industry, it’s clear that York HVAC will be around for quite some time.