water softeners 1.234

==================
Lead Contamination in Home Water Supplies
There has been a great deal of information in the news in the last several decades about the dangers of lead exposure, particularly where children are concerned. Most of the stories which have made their way into news programs and publications have focused on lead paint in old homes and on unsafely produced toys and other consumer goods. Little has been said about the risks of lead exposure in drinking water due to old pipes despite the fact that lead contamination in home water supplies is a legitimate concern, especially with older homes.

What Is Lead?
Lead is a metal which was used extensively in the years before it was determined to be toxic. It was used in the production of paints, pipes and other products in the past. Once it was discovered to have toxic qualities, regulations were established to eliminate the substance from newly produced and installed products, including laws which prohibit it from being used in water lines for public water systems and residential and non-residential buildings.

How is Lead Present in Water Then?
Although regulations now prohibit the use of lead pipes and other lead components in public and private plumbing networks that doesn’t mean lead is entirely gone from these systems. In older homes and buildings, lead pipes may still be present. The same is true for municipal water systems which predate the regulations on installing new water lines. Lead free pipes which are used to create new sewage and water supply lines may also contain small amounts of lead. The term “lead free” simply means these components must have a minimal amount of lead contained within them – specifically, no more than 0.3 percent for pipes and no more than 8 percent for pipe fittings and fixtures like faucets.

What are the Health Risks of Lead Exposure?
If your children are exposed to lead they can have developmental issues, including physical and mental problems. They may additionally exhibit learning deficiencies and attention span problems. Long term exposure often results in life-long issues for< individuals exposed to lead during their developmental years (ages six and under). Even we adults who experience prolonged lead exposure can see serious health consequences as well. These can include high blood pressure and kidney problems, among others. Lead is serious businessWhat Levels of Lead in Water are Dangerous? According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), there should be no lead in drinking water in order for the water to be safe for human consumption. While this regulation is among the restrictions which must be followed by city water providers, the exposure to lead contamination from municipal water supplies should be virtually nonexistent. However in recent years investigations have found lead in the municipal water of some of the USA’s largest cities. That being said, most lead contamination now, actually results from old pipes and fixtures in homes. Reducing the Potential for Lead Exposure The EPA’s regulations reduce the chances but do not eliminate the chances of lead being present in city water supplies received from water processing plants. They do not prevent the potential of exposure to lead from old pipes in your own home. If you live in an older house which was built prior to the implementation of new laws governing the production and installation of pipes and other plumbing components, or you are unwilling to risk the health of your family your best course of action to further reduce the chances of lead exposure is to install water filters capable of capturing and eliminating lead from drinking water.

plumber pbn’s 234

Web Links

Replacing Supply Stops
Supply stops come in a wide variety of sizes. The sizes can be divided into two categories: inlet and outlet size.
Inlets are most commonly either 1/2 inch FPT (female pipe thread) IPS (iron pipe size) or 1/2 inch copper compression (NOM COMP) which is the same as 5/8 O.D. compression.
Outlets come in 3/8 and 1/2 inch O.D. compression or 1/2 inch IPS.
Which type you need depends on what type of pipe is coming out of the wall, either copper, or threaded pipe and what size outlet you need to mate with the fixture supply riser.
When replacing copper compression stops, use two crescent wrenches, one on the nut and one on the valve body. Turn the nut clockwise as you look at it. You probably won’t be able to remove the nut without a special tool because of the ferrule ring which has tightened to the copper. Put thread sealant on the ferrule and the valve threads. Use two wrenches again, tightening the nut onto the new valve.
Replacing a threaded pipe stop is just like replacing a standard fitting. Remove the old stop. Use Teflon tape or thread sealant on the threads. Then tighten the new stop with a crescent wrench.
top of page

Replacing Fixture Supplies
When replacing fixture supplies or risers stainless steel braided supplies are recommended.
When sizing supplies you will have to take into account the inlet size, outlet size, and length.
Inlet sizes come in 3/8″ compression, 1/2″ compression, and 1/2″ IPS. 3/8″ comp. and 1/2″ IPS are most common.
Sinks will have an outlet size of 1/2″ IPS. Toilets will have an outlet size of 7/8″ Ball Cock.
Be sure you don’t buy supplies that are too short.
Pre made supplies require no thread sealant because they have washers.
top of page
home

plumber pbn’s 321

Helpful Ideas That Make Your Plumbing Work Better
Comments Off

Taking the time to learn the proper methods of plumbing tasks can be extremely rewarding. It shows you care about proper upkeep and that you want everything to always be in working order. There is always a way to gain additional knowledge and improve your initial abilities. Below are a few tips to help.
If you have noisy pipes that sound like hammering or squeaking, this is something that is easy to fix. Exposed pipes need to be properly anchored. If the pipes are in the walls, floors or ceiling, you may want to call a professional to come and help complete the project.

TIP! A great tip to use to stop your septic tank from backing up is to make sure you have it pumped at least every five years. Deposit and debris build up in your tank can result in major problems.

To keep your pipes from freezing in the winter, maintain a constant temperature in your home above freezing, even if the house is vacant. Pipes will freeze as soon as they reach freezing temperatures. It could take some time for thawing to occur so that you can have running water. However, frozen pipes often burst, and that could make a mess and result in a big repair bill.
Only pay pay the plumber once the job is done. Sometimes plumbers will request a cash deposit before any work can commence; however, you avoid paying the total bill until the whole job has been finished to your satisfaction. You will feel better paying the bill when you are completely satisfied with the job.

TIP! Don’t use harsh chemicals such as toilet tablets in your toilet. These products can be great when it comes to getting rid of odors, but unfortunately, they can cause significant damage to the rubber portions of your toilet.

If your toilet is clogged, the water level in the toilet is low, and your water level inside of the toilet appears low, but be sure to pour it from a height that is waist level or above so you do not flood the bathroom. Do this as often as necessary if the water level gets too low.
Don’t put oil, grease or fat into your drain. These substances will clog the drain as they cool and harden. Especially if you operate a garbage disposal, the fat causes blades to be less efficient. Dump your oil outside or in a container that you throw out with the regular trash.

TIP! You can keep your bathtub pipes clear by pouring baking soda and vinegar down your drain once a month. Use one cup of each.

Check the floors in your bathroom for soft areas around the floors. You can save money if you notice these issue sooner.
Ensure overflow holes have not been clogged. Overflow holes are one of those things which you forget about until you need them. Make sure to clean out the overflow holes each time you do maintenance checks on your sinks.

TIP! If you run your garbage disposal after working in the kitchen, use a large quantity of cold water. Cold water keeps blades sharp and allows for smoother disposal.

Use filters on all drains to prevent small particles from getting through. The ones in the bathroom can be cleaned out on a regular basis.
If you are using a slower head, see to it that you replace it with one that has good quality. Many times, people think it is okay to buy the cheapest shower head that they can find. The issue with that is they’re less tough and can break.

TIP! Make sure to clean out the dryers lint trap. This will save a ton of trouble for you, it will also prevent fires.

Schedule your plumbing work at one time. You might be tempted to contact a plumber every time you face a small problem, but if you wait and hire the plumber for a single visit, you will have time to save money for the fixes.Most plumbers charge an hourly rate and a flat rate for the trip: asking a plumber to fix multiple problems in one visit to your home.
One costly plumbing repair is frozen pipes. Fortunately, such damage is easy to prevent. First, you need to check your outside pipe to make sure it has the proper insulation. In addition, as the weather turns colder, make it a point to drain and detach your hoses. Finally, turn off the faucet located outside. If you take these preventative measures, you will save money in the long run.

TIP! If you have grout caught in your line, it’s most likely impossible for you to clean yourself. Do your best to break it up and flush it down.

Pour equal parts baking soda followed by vinegar down your bathtub drain every month. Plug the drain and allow the chemical reaction takes place. Wait for a little while, and then use boiling water to flush. This should open up the pipes of accumulated hair and soap scum.
Research your plumber online even if you are in the position of not having the choice in which plumber is going to enter your home.. When your insurance company takes care of choosing a plumber for you, it is important to still look at their website, reviews and any customer comments they have. This will allow you to feel prepared when they come to your house.

TIP! Be certain that your toilet does not have a leak. Put food coloring in your toilet tank to test the toilet for leaks.

Overflow Holes
Some have no idea of plumbing in general, so they pay whatever the plumber wants. If you own your home, you should definitely be sure to learn enough to understand what the professional is accomplishing. This will ensure that you are not ripped off.

TIP! If your washing machine’s drain stack overflows, snake it with a regular pipe snake. The pipe may be clogged up due to lint.

Ensure that the overflow holes have not been clogged. Clear the overflow holes periodically when you are doing your periodic checks for problems and plumbing issues that need to be repaired.
For the conservation-minded consumer, it might be wise to purchase a tankless water heater. These heaters only heat water when it is needed, so they do not store any water the way a regular heater does. These water heaters will save you money, as they are not wasting energy to heat water that you are not using.

TIP! Certain things like chicken skin, carrots, pumpkin and banana are considered bad on the blade, because they have the potential of getting caught and clogging the drain. Sift your food for difficultly-ground materials like these so you can throw them away, then put the rest of your food down the disposal.

Now you have some necessary knowledge and tools in order for you to try out your plumbing skills. That must feel great! The tips listed above were put together with you in mind to help you keep improving on your plumbing skills. Perhaps you have acquired some go-to plumbing truths.
Check out any loose tiles for warning signs of damage from water. One cause for loose tiles is a water leak. You should press on tiles to see if they yield to the pressure you are placing on it. Consider loose tiles to be an early warning system so you can schedule a repair right away.

TIP! Water should never accumulate around your water heating unit. If it does, there is a leak and you should turn off the water to the unit immediately.
============================
Simple Plumbing Tips That Work Well And Everyone Can Understand
Comments Off

Welcome to the wide world of home plumbing. Plumbing covers a wide range of issues as well as solutions and laborious repairs. Plumbing is a matter of personal preferences and abilities, oftentimes making it seem somewhat difficult to find a solution that works for you. The advice provided in the below article can provide you with helpful advice.
Noisy pipes that make squeaking or hammering sounds are an easy problem to fix. You will need to anchor any exposed pipes. If these pipes are located in the floors, ceiling or walls, you are probably best calling a profession plumber to take over the project.

TIP! Pump your septic tank about once every five years, to make sure it is working well. Doing so avoids sediment build up, so that you don’t have any kind of septic system backup.

Noisy pipes that make squeaking or hammering sounds are actually a lot easier to fix than you would imagine.You must anchor all exposed pipe.
If you know what tools you should use, it can help you deal with your plumbing problems in the right way. Read every manual, and use the Internet and library to research the projects that you plan on doing. Have a sound plan going into any do it yourself repair attempt, since mistakes will cost you dearly in money, time and stress.

TIP! If you discover a problem with the garbage disposal, don’t ever reach into it with your hands to attempt to fix it. Garbage disposals can be dangerous, even if they are powered off.

If you have a water pipe that freezes, turn on the water from the faucet nearest them to let water out when they start to thaw. This relieves the pressure contained in the pipe as it also prevents it from bursting, and could prevent cracks from appearing.
You can check for damage to the floors around the toilets by checking for soft areas. Put a foot on each side of the toilet and put weight on each side, if you have any give you may have damage. You can save money if you notice the problem as soon as possible.

TIP! Put the strainer on top of drains to catch any food that would go down and cause a clog. You should clean your strainer in your kitchen anytime you have anything in it.

Don’t put things like fat, grease or fat down the drain. This is especially the case if you possess a garbage disposal run slower. Make certain you dispose of oils in other places other than the sink.
Schedule one plumber to take care of all your issues in one single visit. You might be tempted to have a plumber come out for every little thing that happens, but kicking the can on some issues until you have a list means you can save a few bucks. Because plumbers generally round up to the nearest hour, this also allows you to save money. The time only gets rounded up once, rather than multiple times.

TIP! Ensure that your sink’s overflow holes are clear. These holes come into use if the skin overflows.

Run lots of cold water through your sink when you turn on the garbage disposal. Cold water helps to maintain the sharpness of the blades sharp and encourage a smoother disposal.
Installing efficient shower heads could save you a lot of money when it comes to your energy bill. Most of our hot water is used in the shower. When you invest in energy-efficient shower heads, you will save around $100 a year for every shower head.

TIP! If there is unwanted water draining into the dishwasher, it is most likely because of the hose to the kitchen sink being installed improperly. The hose going from the dishwasher to the sink needs to angle uphill before going back downhill to prevent water from both being mixed.

If there is unwanted water draining into the dishwasher, the likely culprit is a kitchen sink hose not properly attached. The hose from your sink to your dishwasher has to go up and then down so that there is no mixing between fixtures.
If you need to buy a pipe cleaner to unclog your pipes, it is best to find one that is enzyme based. These cleaners employ helpful bacteria which process the sludge lining your pipes, and turn it to liquid. Enzyme cleaners are efficient and will not damage your pipes.

TIP! To extend the life of your pipes, try to stay away from drain cleaners if you can. Drain cleaners contain very corrosive chemicals that can cause damage to your pipes if used too much.

Use enzyme based if you want to clean clogged pipes. These natural bacteria cleaners turn sludge into liquid, which turns sludge into liquid and cleans your pipes. Enzyme cleaners are efficient and will not damage your first choice.
The toilet should never be leaking, so make sure. The easiest way to perform this test is by placing a few food coloring drops in your toilet’s upper tank. Look at the bowl carefully. If you notice colored water in several seconds, then you know your toilet is leaking badly, and you need to fix this as soon as possible.

TIP! If you are searching for someone to do your plumbing work, check out the Consumer Affairs Department. They will tell you if their licenses are all up to date or if they have received any negative feedback.

Lint Trap
A plumber’s work goes well beyond fixing toilets and pipes. Fixing water lines is among the most common fixes a plumber does.

TIP! A lot of people are afraid that plumbing problems will destroy their home. Know where your main water valve is to avoid flooding in case of serious plumbing issues.

Be sure to clean your dryer’s lint trap is clean.This will help your dryer operates efficiently and prevents fires.Be sure you inspect your lint trap for tears or holes that could mean lint is going into your pipes, because this can cause bigger problems as it may mean that lint is escaping into your pipes.
To improve the efficiency of your water heater, you need to determine what size hot water tank your household needs. Knowing how many appliances and people use the hot water in the house can help you become aware of the size that is best for your house.

TIP! If there is an additional pipe that extends from the drainage pipe when you install a water heater, take time and care to reconnect this pipe when you finish. It’s probably a recirculation pipe, and that can help your water remain heated without wasting water.

You have not choice in the matter of what plumber is scheduled sometimes, but you can look them up and view their credentials. If your insurance company has just scheduled someone for you, doing a background check on him can put you on guard should he have a bad reputation.
Be extremely careful about unclogging a stopped-up drain using a chemical drain opening product. These products do help open a clogged drain, but the chemicals they contain may damage the body, and this is especially true if it gets on the skin. Wear gloves and a long-sleeved shirt if you absolutely must use them.

TIP! If you work outside for long periods, don’t stay in the sun too long. Forgetting you are out in the sun can be a problem, and you should really minimize the exposure you receive.

If you are looking into hiring a plumber, check the references of the person or company before hiring them. A plumber that is not be experienced enough to fix your problem. Always look into a plumber’s reviews or talk to people you trust, or ask friends and family if they can recommend one.
If your home has copper pipes, they could expand a little when hot water runs through them. This can often times lead to the pipes becoming warped, and not fitting tightly inside the pipe hangers, due to grinding. Wrap some tape around a pipe to put it back on the hanger.

TIP! Turn off the water at the main valve immediately if you notice water on the floor by your water heater. If you don’t, that small leak could become a big leak that can be hard to shut off.

As you can see, you have different options available to you to make your plumbing projects a breeze. Plumbing is a skill used in every home, but each house will have it’s own system to deal with. By reading this article, you should have some ideas about which techniques might work best for your system.
Be sure that everyone in your home knows how to shut off the water to your house, and to all of the different connections in your home. You want everyone to understand what needs to be done in order to cease the flow of water throughout your house when the threat of water damage may occur from flooding. Each person will be capable of stopping the water flow and able to shut off the system.

TIP! Maintenance should be performed regularly to prevent leaks from faucets and sinks. It’s reported that an average of 150 gallons each day may be wasted because of leaks.

==================================
Do You Find Plumbing Complicated? Use This Advice
Comments Off

Plumbing issues can ruin your home and home. There are some suggestions below to help you in fixing your plumbing problems.
You should clean your septic tank every five years! Septic systems can back up when the septic tank builds up sediment. This can even result in the septic system failing altogether. While it may cost a bit to have your septic tank pumped out, it will cost you much more to clean up any sewage backup or to repair or replace your septic tank.

TIP! If you have a clogged toilet and a plunger is not helping to clear the blockage, if the water level is low, pouring a bucking of boiling water from a height into the toilet bowl could resolve the problem. If the water goes down to a lower level again, then you should repeat the procedure.

Noisy pipes are an easy problem to fix. You will need to anchor any type of exposed pipe.
If your garbage disposal is having problems, don’t give in to the desire to attempt a fix by reaching down into the disposal. Garbage disposals can be dangerous, even when they are turned off. Hire a professional, or at least find your owner’s manual to look at a diagram of the disposal. Many owner’s manuals are available online, and may even contain interactive troubleshooters.

TIP! Avoid placing fat, grease, and other oils into your drain. These substances will harden as soon as they cool down, and clog your drains.

If one of your water pipes freezes, make sure you turn the closest faucet to allow the thawing water to exit. This gives the pressure somewhere to go, and keeps it from bursting.
You should always put plenty of cold water through your garbage disposal while it is running. The cold water helps the blades that are inside stay sharp, and will keep your disposal running smoothly. Hot water is not recommended because of what it does to greasy products.

TIP! To lessen the chances of toilet problems, do not use as a place to put trash. A lot of commonly-flushed items such as tissues, cotton balls and swabs, paper towels, diapers, and sanitary napkins can clog up a toilet by failing to dissolve properly.

Don’t use any colored tablets in your toilet. These products may well remove odors, but they can seriously damage the rubber pieces in the toilet, causing poor functionality or even complete breakdown of the fixture.
Keep your dryer’s lint trap clean. This can prevent various problems, including a fire. Make sure that you inspect the lint trap for any holes or tears that might mean lint is going to your pipes, which might lead to clogs and other problems to deal with.

TIP! If you have grout deposits inside your pipes, it is almost impossible for an inexperienced homeowner to fix. You could dislodge the grout and cause it go further down.

Check the floors in your bathroom for soft areas around the floors. You can save money if you catch these issue sooner.
Try not to use drain cleaners if you can. Drain cleaners contain harsh chemicals that can cause your pipes to corrode if you overuse them. Sometimes, finding a professional to fix a blocked drain is the best way to solve the problem.

TIP! Be certain that your toilet does not leak. Try dropping a little food coloring in the tank.

Dish Soap
The valves will fuse together if they are not used. Periodically turn these valves off and one. Use specially designed oils that can work their way through the buildup to keep them loosened up and operable.

TIP! Use services like the Consumer Affairs Department to find a reputable contractor. They provide many useful services, such as the ability to file a service complaint review complaints, and confirm that they are licensed.

By regularly incorporating a routine using a combination of dish soap, which includes a combination of lemon rinds, dish soap and even pits from a cherry, your disposal can be kept smelling fresh and running smoothly for many years to come.
Know where the location of the main water-valve is on your property. There should be a nearby water meter. Water fixtures typically have a cut-off valve of their own. Make sure your entire family is aware of the location of these shut-off valves and how to use them in the event of an emergency.

TIP! Plumbing can be a nightmare, because it can cause a lot of damage to a home. This can be avoided if you know just one thing.

It is important to to use lots of cold water while using your garbage disposal. Cold water keeps blades and makes the disposal run more smoothly.
If you are switching out an old water heater for a new one and you see a pipe connected to the drainage pipe, take the time to connect that pipe. This pipe is probably for recirculation of the water and it works to keep energy usage to a minimum by making water heating more efficient.

TIP! Shut off the water immediately and then call a plumber when you find a leak inside your walls. This usually indicates a serious plumbing problem.

Installing efficient shower heads could save you a lot of money on your energy bill. Most of the hot water is consumed in the shower. If you invest in purchasing and installing shower heads that are energy-efficient, you can save hundreds each year on your bills.
Copper pipes will expand when hot water runs through them. When they do, they can rub against the pipe hangers, causing pipe damage. To keep this from happening, put some tape on the pipe before setting into the hanger.

TIP! To save both time and money, group all your plumbing fixes to be done at one time. Before you schedule an appointment with a plumber, go through your system and write down everything that needs work.

Kitchen Sink
Check your flooring for loose tiles or any water damage. Loose tiles can be an early sign that a leak exists and needs to be addressed, so press against the floor or wall around the tiles to determine if there is any “give”. By identifying loose tiles, you will be able to react more quickly to an unseen leak and repair the damage before it gets worse.

TIP! Purchasing plumbing tools can be expensive, but it can save you money in the long run. There are many Internet videos that can show you how to make basic repairs to plumbing.

If the hose that leads to your kitchen sink has not been maintained or installed properly, the problem is most likely a hose running to your kitchen sink that was not correctly installed. The hose from your sink to your dishwasher has to go up and then down so that there is no mixing between fixtures.
If you live in an area where the winter months are cold, make sure to use heat applied on any exposed pipes. This prevents the pipes from freezing. If you have cold weather where you live, and if you do not insulate pipes, they could freeze! Even pipes inside the house can freeze if the water in them is coming from outside. Try using heat lamps or heaters around the pipes in order to ensure that the water doesn’t freeze inside them.

TIP! Before winter rolls around, you should check to ensure that your home’s hot water tank is working safely and properly. This could easily save money on your winter utilities, because your water heater will be more efficient and use less energy to heat water.

Don’t flush items like paper towels, such as diapers, tissues, paper towels and cotton balls.
Your water bill will be increased if water is running continuously into the bowl, which could be caused by a damaged flapper or flapper seat. A simple cleaning or replacement of the flapper and/or flapper seat will solve this problem.

TIP! You can make sure that your connection is at optimum tightness by using sealants specifically appropriate for steel or plastic, depending on what you have. Check with your local hardware store to find what you’re looking for.

Some people think it’s alright to get the cheapest version at the store. The issue with that these models are not highly durable and easily break.
An over-tightened pipe can actually be worse than an under-tightened one! You can damage threads and run the risk of cracking the pipe; make sure to tighten it just enough to stop leaks, not more.

TIP!

Use enzyme based if you want to clean clogged pipes. These are cleaners that work by using natural bacteria to eat away at your clog, and be removed from your pipes. Enzyme cleaners are not damage your metal pipes.

TIP!

No one wants to have problems with their plumbing, but with the right knowledge and some hard work, these problems can be remedied. You may have to do some research and talk to a professional. Hopefully this article has provided you with some useful advice for the next time you face another plumbing problem.

TIP!
========================
Problems With Your Pipes? Plumbing Tips That You Can Use
Comments Off

Water is the source of life, though it can be the cause of frustration for anyone that is dealing with a plumbing issue. There are not many things more devastating to a house faster than to leave a major plumbing problem.
If any water pipe that you have freezes, be sure to turn on the faucet that is closes to the pipe to give the water an exit as the pipe thaws. This will relive some of the pressure, and could prevent cracks from appearing.

TIP! Pump your septic tank about once every five years, to make sure it is working well. This stop sedimentary particles from accumulating in the tank, and in the worst cases, flooding your home or making the entire system to fail.

To keep your pipes from freezing in the winter, maintain a constant temperature in your home above freezing, even if the house is vacant. Pipes have the potential to freeze if the surrounding temperatures are below the freezing temperatures. It may take some time in order for the pipes to thaw out so that you can have running water. However, frozen pipes often burst, as well – making a huge plumbing bill.
You do not give the plumber all the money until he is finished with his work. Although you might be required to pay a down payment before the job is initiated, never pay the bill in full until you are certain that the job is completed to your satisfaction. This ensures that the plumber fully completes the job before getting paid.

TIP! Toilet discs and odor removers should never be used in your toilet. These may deodorize, but they can seriously damage the rubber pieces in the toilet, causing poor functionality or even complete breakdown of the fixture.

If a pipe freezes, open a tap on the line to allow the thawing ice to drain. This helps to relieve the pressure in the pipe and may prevent bursting, and keeps it from bursting.
Look at the overflow holes to ensure they aren’t clogged up. Overflow holes exist to act as a double check in case of an overfilling sink. That may seem unimportant – but it will become a problem if they are clogged. Clear the overflow holes periodically when you are doing your periodic checks for other problems and things that need to be repaired.

TIP! Run cold water through your garbage disposal. The cold water helps keep the blades sharp and can make disposal much smoother.

If your toilet is clogged, and the plunger is not working, and a plunger is not doing the trick, you can sometimes fix the problem by dumping warm water into your toilet at waist level (or maybe even a little higher). Do this every time the water level dips back down again.
If water that is not supposed to be there is in the dishwasher, the likely culprit is a kitchen sink hose not properly attached. The water will not drain into the dishwasher from the sink if it is configured in an uphill and downhill position.

TIP! To lessen the chances of toilet problems, do not use as a place to put trash. Do not flush things like paper towels, sanitary pads, tissues, diapers, cotton balls or anything else that might cause the toilet to get clogged.

Garbage Disposal
Be sure to clean your dryer’s lint trap. This is preventative maintenance that will prevent many problems, including fires. Make sure that you inspect the lint trap for any holes or tears that might mean lint is going to your pipes, which might lead to clogs and other problems to deal with.

TIP! The secret to low or even no repair bills from plumbing issues is prevention. Drain clogs are a common plumbing issue and sometimes expensive to repair when they are not addressed promptly.

Never put your bare hands in your garbage disposal. Even an un-powered garbage disposal is turned off they can be dangerous. You can search online to find the diagram for your garbage disposal.
When running your garbage disposal, plumbers recommend using only cold water to help ease food particles down the drain. People are misguided in thinking that it will work better with the water running, but it is actually of no help. In some cases, water can actually cause garbage to become lodged in awkward places, and contribute to future problems.

TIP! Keep from using harsh drain cleaners. The chemicals that these cleaners are made up of are corrosive, and will damage the pipes in your house if you overuse them.

Avoid dumping oil, grease, and grease in your drain. This is especially damaging to garbage disposals because the fats will make the blades go slower and less freely. Make certain you dispose of oils away from the sink.
The clean out plug can sometimes be difficult to remove, and if you are having problems, there are two approaches to fixing this problem One way is to make the fitting looser with a hammer and chisel. The only other option is to chisel right through the clean out plug.

TIP! Valves that are rarely used tend to fuse together. You can prevent them from becoming fused by regularly maintaining them with a penetrating oil, and running water through them on a regular basis.

If you live in a home using well water and your bathtubs have stains pink and orange in color, this is most likely caused by an excess of iron in your water. You can deal with use by using a water softener, which you could purchase at a local store, or by hiring a professional to come out.
Consult your Department of Consumer Affair if you’re looking to hire a plumbing contractor. They will tell you if their licenses are all up to date or if they have received any negative feedback. Do not hire a plumber with a license that is not in good standing.

TIP! Everyone in your family should know exactly where your home’s main water shut off valve is and how to use it. You will see the water meter near it or on it.

By regularly incorporating a routine using a combination of dish soap, which includes a combination of lemon rinds, and even cherry pits, you can keep your disposal running smoothly and smelling as fresh as the day it was installed.
To get your water heater to perform better, you will have to make a determination of your household needs in relation to the size of the hot water tank. If you know how many people are in the home and how many appliances use hot water, you will have a good idea of what size tank is appropriate.

TIP! If you find that your drain stack is overflowing on the washing machine, try snaking it out with the standard pipe snake. The pipe may be clogged up due to lint.

Kitchen Sink
If you’re the type of individual who likes to conserve water, then you can opt for a tankless model of water heater instead of a traditional one. In contrast to conventional water heaters, these appliances only heat the water when it is needed rather than storing hot water in a tank. Obviously, you will save money when you are not paying to keep water hot all the time.

TIP! If you are purchasing plumbing fixtures, think about selecting brass ones. To start, brass fixtures are more durable and lasts for a longer period of time.

If you are seeing water at the bottom of the dishwasher, it is most likely because of the hose to the kitchen sink being installed improperly. The hose connecting the kitchen sink and the dishwasher needs to go up and then down in order for the water of both locations to not mix.
Certain things like chicken skin, carrots, pumpkin and banana are considered bad on the blade, because they have the potential of getting caught and clogging the drain. Make sure that you put these items in the regular trash can, rather than subjecting your garbage disposal to them.

TIP! Consider adding flood alarms to your home’s plumbing. A flood alarm works in much the same way as a smoke alarm, only they’re placed at floor level.

Some people think it’s alright to get away with the cheapest head for your shower in the store. The issue with that they are not very sturdy and can break much easier.
Be sure that everyone in your home knows how to shut off the water to your house, and to all of the different connections in your home. If a situation arises where the water needs to be cut off it is important for everyone to be able to do it, so that it can be done in a timely manner and ultimately reduce the amount of damage that is caused from the flooding water. If they understand how to turn it off, they will have the ability to prevent water flow.

TIP! Be sure to keep your pipes from blocking up by cleaning them regularly with tools or chemicals. This is very important for pipes located outside your house, such as toilet pipes or drains, which are sometimes blocked by tree roots.

Use enzyme based if you want to clean clogged pipes. These cleaners use natural bacteria to turn the sludge into a liquid, and turn it into a liquid that is then flushed from your pipes. Enzyme cleaners are not damage your pipes.
Make sure you put insulation on pipes, and in small areas that get cold during the winter months. Home improvement stores sell easy to install insulation. It will prevent the bursting of freezing pipes, as well as, keeping the hot water warmer on it’s way to your shower or sink.

TIP!

Frozen pipes are on of the most expensive plumbing repair bills. The first thing you should do is ensure your outside pipes are well insulated. When colder weather is approach, you should also make sure your garden hoses are disconnected and that your exterior faucet is shut off. This will help to save you money on pipe repairs over time.

TIP!

Plumbing Problems

TIP!

You need to be properly educated and prepared in order to stay away from plumbing problems. Knowing as much as you can about plumbing will lead to making sound decisions and avoiding costly plumbing problems. Also, a homeowner who researches solutions before working on plumbing will avoid potential disasters.

================
Tips And Tricks On Doing Your Own Plumbing
Comments Off

Welcome to the plumbing and its world! Plumbing covers a wide range of complicated equipments and laborious repairs. Plumbing is a personal issue when dealing with home improvement, so it is not always easy to find what works for you. The following article can provide you with helpful advice.
If your pipes are making a racket, there is a simple way to quiet them down. Any exposed pipes will need to be anchored. For pipes that are situated inside walls, or the floor or ceiling, you should hire a professional.

TIP! Wait until a job is done before you pay for it. In some cases, you have to make a down payment prior to the first day of work.

Noisy pipes that make squeaking or hammering sounds are actually a lot easier to fix than you would imagine.You must anchor any type of exposed pipes.
Knowing all your different tools and how they are used will be a great help when you work on a plumbing job. Research the project you are going to attempt online, and read the manuals that come with the tools before you use them. Don’t just blindly rush into a project. Plan each project so that you don’t make costly mistakes.

TIP! You can unclog a toilet by pouring warm water in the bowl from waist level. Do this every time the water level gets too low.

Have a professional flush your septic tank cleaned every five years or so to keep it working well. Although it is somewhat of an expense to pump out a septic tank, it will cost a lot more having to clean sewage backup or having to fix or replace a septic tank.
If you get your water from a well and orange or pink stains appear in your sink or tub, then you can be sure that the culprit is iron in your water. You can deal with use by using a water softener, which is something you can get on your own at a local retailer, or by hiring a professional to come out.

TIP! To keep your garbage disposal lasting for a long time, make sure you clean it on a daily basis. Keep your garbage disposal fresh and running by using dish soap, cherry pits and lemon rinds regularly.

Use filters on all drains to keep foreign objects and debris that might clog the pipes from clogging drains. The ones in the bathroom can be cleaned out on a regular basis.
Try to have all your plumbing repairs done at once. While you may be tempted to call the plumber whenever you have a slight problem, scheduling it all at once gives you the opportunity to save money to pay for the repairs. Because plumbers generally round up to the nearest hour, this also allows you to save money. The time only gets rounded up once, rather than multiple times.

TIP! When running your garbage disposal, always use a lot of cold water. The helps sharpen the blades and clears out the drain mechanism.

Don’t put things like fat, grease or fat into your drain. This is primarily true if you are someone who has a garbage disposals because the fats will make the blades go slower and less freely. Make certain you dispose of oils in other places other than the sink.
When your pipes have clogs and you are thinking of using a pipe cleaner, choose a cleaner that is enzyme based. These are cleaners that work by using natural bacteria to eat away at your clog, and turn it into a liquid that is then flushed from your pipes. Some of the finest cleaners are enzyme cleaners.

TIP! Frozen pipes can lead to a large plumbing bill. This can usually be prevented.

Pour baking soda and vinegar down your bathtub drain once a month. Plug the opening or cover it with a cloth while the chemical reaction to occur. After waiting a few minutes,just flush the drain out with water that has reached a boiling point. This procedure will clear the hair and soap scum.
If you have grout stuck in the line, it probably won’t help you cleaning it all by yourself. You could dislodge the grout and cause it go further down. This is more successful in plastic plumbing as compared to metal pipes. This is a tough problem, however, that very often requires professional intervention.

TIP! Letting your sink run is not really necessary when you put something down the in-sink disposal unit. It is popular belief that running water will help the garbage disposal work, but this is mistaken.

Always have cold water when you are using your garbage disposal is running. Cold water will allow for the food particles to be properly disposed of while keeping the blades sharp and encourage a smoother disposal.
The clean out plug can sometimes be difficult to remove, and if you are having problems, there are two approaches to fixing this problem The first method involves a hammer and chisel to loosen the fitting. The only other method is to take the chisel and use it right through the plug.

TIP! No matter what plumber you use, you should know a little about him before he comes to the door. Even if your insurance company assigns a plumber to you, you can get online and learn his name and the quality of his work.

Some people think they can get away with the cheapest head for your shower in the store. The disadvantage to doing so is that these models are not very sturdy and easily break.
You should be very careful when choosing drain cleaners. Some drain cleaners contain chemicals that can hurt your pipes. Pick a brand that will be gentle on your pipes. Your plumbing needs some forms of bacteria in order to work properly and the wrong chemicals can kill these good bacteria, as well as being toxic to people.

TIP! To better the efficiency of the water heater, see what size a tank your household requires. Being aware of how many people in your house use hot water, and how many of your appliances will need hot water to work, will help you know the size that your hot water tank should be.

Plumbing Repair
If you are switching out an old water heater for a new one and you see a pipe connected to the drainage pipe, take the time to connect that pipe. These pipes help to recirculate the water in the tank, keeping it hot while using less water and energy.

TIP! If you find that your drain stack is overflowing on the washing machine, try snaking it out with the standard pipe snake. Sometimes lint and small items that come from the machine can start to build up inside the pipe, making it back up or clog.

Prevention is necessary when you want to keep plumbing repair bills down. Clogs are one of the top reasons for needing a major plumbing repair.It’s a lot easier to take hair that is on a screen than eliminating it off a pipe.
Avoid chemical based drain openers when you need to deal with drain clogs. These products are so dangerous to your skin and eyes that it is simply not worth the risk using them poses. If you must use such chemicals, be sure to wear long sleeves and gloves.

TIP! Remember not to overdo. Take frequent breaks when working hard – especially if you are in the hot sun.

Clean the aerator to adjust water pressure issues due to sediment build up. Take the aerator off, disassemble it, and clean inside with a brush soaked in vinegar.
If you see water pooling under your water heater, turn the water off using the shut-off valves. If you procrastinate about shutting off water valves, the leak may get larger, and harder to contain.

TIP! Make sure that everybody in your family knows how to turn off the water going into your house, and the various areas connected in your house. You definitely want everyone to be able to stop excess water from flooding your home and damaging flooring and baseboards.

In the plumbing world, you have many techniques to make your approach better and more efficient. The plumbing world has something for everyone, but what is workable for one system might not be for another. These tips have hopefully provided a base for you to repair or improve your plumbing system.
If there is plumbing system wear, get new parts. You can fix minor leaks with plumbing foam, but do not expect this kind of solution to last. In order to fix it the right way, buy some new replacement parts.

TIP! If you are preparing your home for the winter, now would be a excellent time to have someone take a look at the hot water tank for any potential problems. By doing this, you could end up saving yourself some money when the water heater does not have to perform so hard over the colder months.
========================
8 Easy Tips To Finding The Right Toilet
Comments (24)

Maybe you’re building a house, or you’re remodeling. With the all the things you’re thinking about, the toilet probably doesn’t seem too important. However, don’t forget about the toilet, a true hallmark of a civilized home. Following a few straightforward steps can help you find a toilet that is right for you, both functionally and aesthetically. Remember, all toilets are not built the same!
Look for this in a toilet:
1). The toilet bowl’s shape: You can choose an elongated shape or a round one. The round front tends to be two inches shorter, and works well for smaller spaces. The larger elongated front is more comfortable and sanitary, since there is less drip on the toilet.
2). The toilet size: There are lots of choices, with different lengths, widths and heights To get a comfortable fit, make sure you measure the available space. Don’t forget about the rough-in space – the distance of the bowl’s center to the finished wall – as this too will determine the toilet’s maximum size.
3). The toilet trapway’s size: The trap way is that part of the toilet that through which the water and waste exit. The smallest size available passes through waste of a 1.5 inch diameter. Larger trapways make it less likely that the toilet will get clogged.
4). How the toilet flushes: In the US, by law all toilets must have a 1.6 gallon tank to conserve water. However, you do still have some choices. In gravity fed toilets, the weight of the water from the tank pushes the waste through an S shaped trap way, as the siphon that is created empties the bowl. For a little extra flushing help, pressure assisted toilets use compressed air in the toilet tank. When flushing, the pressurized air pushes the water more strongly into the bowl, resulting in a better flush. On the downside, besides the bigger expense, these toilets tend to be noisier and harder to repair.
5). 1 or 2 piece toilets: For the budget minded, toilets consisting of the two separate pieces of toilet bowl and tank are appropriate. There are up to six parts in a one piece toilet that seamlessy make it up. These have a bit more style to them (with a correspondingly more expensive price tag), and need less space and are easier to clean.
6). Ease of maintaining: Many higher end toilets are built explicitly for ease of maintenance. For instance, Toto, an innovative Japanese manufacturer, has SanaGloss, a ceramic glaze which prevents bacteria and mold buildup, making the toilet easy to clean. American Standard has its EasyClean feature. The designers at Kohler have come up with an insulated liner that prevents moisture from condensation on the toilet tank’s outside.
7). Appearance: While a toilet needs to work well, it also needs to look good in your bathroom. It’s a good thing that modern toilets are available in a wide array of styles, sizes and colors. This can come at a price – for instance, non-white toilets tend to be more expensive. One approach you may to consider is to choose a toilet that is part of a bathroom suite, thus ensuring that are the fixtures are in harmony.
8). What else?: If you’re willing to spend the money, you can get a fancy toilet with a built in bidet, heated seat or air drying system. Kohler Comfort Height toilets have a higher seat, making sitting down and standing easier.
You’re now ready to go and choose your perfect toilet.
Rob Barnes writes for All About Toilets, a consumer guide to choosing perfect toilets for your home, reviewing styles such as low flow toilets.
=======================
Tankless Gas Water Heaters – Are They More Energy Efficient
Comments (24)

Tank-less-water-heaters have been popular in Europe and Asia for many, many years,
but in United States have become popular only recently.
What is a tankless water heater?
It is also call is “on demand” water-heater -increased energy efficiency 10% – 50 % .A tankless unit provide hot water only as it is needed This results in energy savings of from 14% to 50% depending on the size.
The traditional storage tank heaters keep
large quantities of water heated whether or not is about to get used. Storage tank heaters also reheat water that has not been used but has cooled inside the tank. On the other hand, a tankless heaters only expends energy to heat water as it is used. The energy savings from using a tankless water heater instead of a storage tank unit are approximately 20% of your energy bill that goes to heating water.
Types of tankless gas heaters
Tankless water heaters are physically smaller than conventional tank heaters and are generally wall mounted.There are two types of tankless-water-heaters:
– Point of use – water-heaters are designed for dedicated use, meaning they supply a single faucet,
shower or appliance. “Point of use” tankless-water heaters are smaller than whole house models and fit easily
in a bathroom vanity cabinet or linen closet.
– Whole house tankless-water-heaters will heat water for all needs throughout the house. These water heaters are larger than “point of use” heaters and are best situated in basements, garages or, depending on the climate where you live, outside.
Tankless-heaters can be fueled by gas (natural or propane) or electricity.
Your fuel choice will affect the heater’s price, cost to operate and flow rate.
Gas heaters are generally larger than electric units and cost more initially, but since gas
is cheaper than electricity, gas powered tankless heaters are less expensive to operate. They can also generate larger flow rates, making them a more effective whole-house choice. If you’re considering a gas-powered tankless-water-heater choose a model without a pilot light to save energy and reduce operating costs.
Electric heaters are less expensive up front but cost more to operate. They also have lower flow rates than gas-powered units, so they’re better suited for point-of-use needs unless your home’s required flow rate doesn’t exceed its power. To maximize energy savings, look for tankless units with modulating controls that increase or decrease the amount of energy required to heat the-water depending on the flow rate.
Many tankless heaters qualify for the $300 Federal tax credit, so will get a well deserved break in that direction. Tankless-water-heater will last up to 20 years twice as long as conventional tank heaters. Add in their energy efficiency and lower operating costs . In most cases , the savings are even more if the heating unit is installed outside.While a tank-less-gas-water-heater is quite an investment, it will pay for itself over time. The best part is that once it has paid for the investment, you will keep saving money each month..
===============

Toilets
As with all plumbing fixtures toilets must be kept clean in order to last. Two simple methods of cleaning a toilet are with a brush and toilet cleaner or for more difficult stains a good cleanser and Scotchbrite sponge. Try to keep up under the rim as clean as possible as this is a place for the buildup of calcium deposits and mildew.
Avoid using bleach or blue tablets in the tank as this is hard on the rubber parts. If you must use them expect to be changing the flapper regularly.
Be sure to keep caps on the floor bolts or they will corrode quickly.
Wipe down the sides and around the base with a light detergent or other cleaner.
Caulking around the base of the toilet is recommended for a neat appearance. Caulk must be kept clean to last.
top of page

Faucets
Keeping a faucet clean will help it keep its shine for a lifetime. A daily or regular wipe down of a faucet will do wonders occasionally you may need to use a general purpose cleaner or a cleanser for tough stains.
One way to protect the finish of a faucet is to give it a car waxing.
Chrome will far outlast other finishes because of its nature. Polished brass finish may loose its luster because contaminants get under the protective coating. Avoid purchasing polished brass fixtures.
Occasionally you will need to replace the aerator to obtain a nice aerated flow.
top of page

Tub/Showers
Take care of the chrome and brass in the same manor as a faucet, wiping it down daily. Clean with a non abrasive cleaner. Protect with car wax.
An important part of tub/shower maintenance is the caulking. Clean caulking regularly with a bleach based mildew killer. Replace the caulk if it is separating from the fixture as soon as possible. Be sure to caulk around the faucet controls and tub spout. see recaulking.
Scrub walls and base with a non abrasive cleanser such as comet.
Seal tile grout on a regular basis as recommended by the manufacturer of the sealant..
To keep clear glass shiny, use a squeegee after every shower.
top of page

Drains
Never put anything down the drain except water, soap, toilet paper and human waste. Avoid allowing food down the drain, even with a garbage disposal.
Treat trouble drains such as the kitchen sink drain with an enzyme made for drains. The bacteria will dissolve buildup before it clogs the drain.
Try to keep hair out of the shower drain with a strainer.
Pour bleach into drain and let stand for five minutes to destroy odors.
top of page
===============

General Toilet Information
Plumbers refer to toilets as water closets or “closets” for short.
A typical toilet has the following identifying parts
A tank that sits atop the bowl and is attached by tank bolts and sealed with a sponge gasket
A trip lever handle that operates the flush valve
A flush valve with a flapper located in the center of the tank. Some make a flapper less flush valve now.
The tank has water that the level can be adjusted to the proper level, a half inch below the top of the refill tube on the flush valve.
A Float cock that opens to refill the tank and bowl. The float cock is on the left side of the tank and has a small tube going to the refill tube on the flush valve.
Bolts that hold the toilet to the flange. These are called closet bolts and closet flange respectively
top of page

Toilet Constantly Runs
It’s the old problem of the toilet stopping and going all night. It can drive you crazy! You have probably done a little of your own investigating already.
By lifting the lid of the tank you can see what is going on. On a typical toilet there is a apparatus in the center where all the water drains out to flush the bowl. It is called a flush valve.
There is a rubber part that seals the valve and opens when the chain is pulled, it is called the flapper. The flapper must be in good condition to seal the tank. You most likely will need to replace the flapper. When you go to buy a new one, by a Korky brand flapper. They make the best one. Kohler toilets and some other brands may require original replacement parts such as a large rubber washer that fits on a plastic flapper.
The seat on which the flapper sits must be absolutely clean and smooth. Use a Scotch-Brite scrub sponge or pad to clean the seat before replacing the flapper.
The chain connecting the flapper to the handle must be properly adjusted. A small amount of slack is just right.
If you still have problems with water escaping into the bowl chances are you need a new flush valve. To be certain this is the problem before proceeding, turn off the water supply to the toilet and see if the tank drains on its own. If you replace the flush valve, you will want to replace the tank bolts and sponge gasket at the same time. The tank bolts may need to be cut to be removed.
Another problem that occurs in the tank is the apparatus on the left side known as the float cock. The water in the tank should be about a half inch below the top of the flush valve fill tube, also known as the hush tube. A standard float cock with the ball on the end of the rod can easily be adjusted by bending the rod. If the float cock needs replacing, I recommend using a Fluidmaster brand float cock. It is easy to install and adjust.
Please refer to replacing supplies and stops if needed.

Toilet Overflows
If the toilet overflows or gurgles when other drains are used you probably have a clogged main. If not, proceed to the next step.
By now you hopefully have stopped the toilet from overflowing, but if not be sure the water is off to the toilet.
Always attempt the easiest fix first. The Plumber’s Helper, the good old plunger. The proper plunger for a toilet is shaped more like a rubber ball than a cup. The correct action on the toilet plunger is the downward stroke to force the water down the drain. Be aggressive.
If the plunger doesn’t clear the toilet, the next easiest is the Closet Auger. The closet auger is a short snake designed to clear an object from the toilet itself. If you don’t have a closet auger, and most don’t, you can always remove the toilet and check it for objects.
top of page

Toilet Leaks
Toilets leak from one of three places: the base, the tank, or the supply connection.
Leaks from the base are fixed by removing and replacing the toilet.
Leaks from the tank require removing and replacing the tank
To remove the tank turn off the water to the toilet, empty the tank, and remove the tank bolts. Cut them if you have to.
Remove and replace the old sponge gasket sealing the tank to the bowl. Replace the tank bolts with new ones. If you can’t get the tank bolts to stop leaking, install an extra rubber washer, brass washer and nut between the tank and bowl.
If the supply connection is leaking refer to repairing supply lines.
top of page

Toilet Doesn’t Operate
This section is for if you operate the handle and nothing happens.
Open the lid of the tank.
Check to be sure the chain is connected between the flapper and the flush handle.
Adjust the chain so that there is a tiny bit of slack.
If the handle is broke or droops replace it with a new one
Remember the toilet handles nut has a left hand thread and is removed by turning it clockwise or to the right, the opposite of a standard nut.

Toilet is Loose
Remove the caps from the closet bolts (floor bolts).
Tighten down the floor bolts.
If that doesn’t fix the problem you will need to remove and replace the toilet..
top of page

Removing and Replacing the Toilet
Turn the water supply off to the toilet. Flush the toilet. Remove all water from the toilet with a large sponge or wet vacuum.
Remove the caps from the closet bolts holding the toilet to the floor.
Remove the nuts from the closet bolts. If the bolts spin, use a pair of pliers on the nuts giving them upward pressure when removing them. If need be, cut the bolts with a hack saw or Sawzall.
If the toilet is caulked to the floor the caulking will need to be broken with a knife.
Prepare a place to set the toilet by laying down a rag or a piece of cardboard.
With hands on either side of the toilet seat hinge area, gently lift the toilet out of place.
If you are reinstalling an old toilet, the wax will need to be removed from the bottom with a small putty knife.
Inspect the closet flange for damage to the area the bolts hold onto. If the flange is broken it will need to be replaced.
Install new closet bolts on the flange. If there is a hole under the place the bolts go they will need to be secured to the flange with a stainless or brass nut and washer.
Install a new wax ring with a plastic insert onto the flange. If the floor level is above the flange you may need to add an extra plain wax ring.
Lower the toilet directly in place so that the bolts go through the holes. You should feel the toilet rest on the wax and crush the wax ring as it is secured to the floor.
If you have two piece bolt caps, place the base on first. Next place the metal washer and secure it with a nut. After the toilet is securely fastened, check it to see it doesn’t rotate or move in any way. If need be, shim up the bottom to keep it from rocking.
Attach the water supply. If need be, replace the washer on the toilet connection. If the supply is corrugated copper the washer will need form fitting threads on the inside.
Turn on the water and test for leaks flushing the toilet several times.
Cut off the excess closet bolts with a hacksaw or sawzall being careful not to damage the porcelain. Install the bolt caps
Caulk the base of the toilet and install the seat if needed.