Most, if not all, HVAC technicians in training will be required to take a test before they are allowed to begin working in their chosen field. Testing can be intimidating for many people, but it need not prevent you from beginning your career!

The examination students are required to take may vary depending on the institution or program they have studied with. They may be administered online or in person and include knowledge assessment as well as mathematical and other types of evaluation. Depending on the program, you may also be required to demonstrate proficiency with a practical skills test; this is more common in situations where apprenticeship has been a component of the learning process.

What to Read Up On
Generally, the materials covered can be reasonably expected to include controls, troubleshooting, repair, and mechanical tools, including the fundamentals of refrigeration, basic HVAC systems, and the installation processes. The material may also include questions on fluid flow and heat transfer theory, as well as motor components and function. For a complete list, refer to the study guide for the test you plan to take.

Memorization Techniques
As with any test, it is important to ensure that you retain the information you have worked so hard to learn. In general, students perform better on tests when they begin preparing far before the testing date; this allows time for the information to become stored in their long-term memory bank, which is more likely to be retained and useful during the test. If you have difficulty with traditional study methods, recite and record material out loud and play it back via a tape recorder, or ask a friend to quiz you randomly on the material.

Before the Test
Don’t make the mistake of cramming before your examination! Take at least 24 hours before the exam and put down your books entirely. This is often the last thing students wish to do. They feel unprepared and suspect that desperate cramming will improve their chances of success, but this is simply not the case. Science has shown that individuals who take a 24-hour rest period before testing retain information more efficiently and that you’re unlikely to retain what you’ve studied the night before anyway!

Testing Skills
Many students feel that they test poorly when in reality, they do not possess good testing skills. As a future HVAC technician, think of your test as an intricate mechanical puzzle you need the skill to solve it, just as you will need the skill to do your job properly! Read questions thoroughly and consider every answer choice before selecting the best one on multiple-choice examinations. Read critically, and make educated guesses when uncertain of the correct answer. Don’t leave the question blank! With the right skills and tools, prospective HVAC technicians should have no problem passing their examinations and joining the workforce. After all, lots of others have already done so!


We are a family-oriented HVAC company dedicated to leading the industry in cost-efficient, high-quality products and the best technological innovations. In addition, we are dedicated to making installation and service a pleasure while embracing the Green Building movement and supporting the environment.

Company History

Our HVAC company was founded in 1920. We introduced our first line of pumps for commercial use. We also opened a second manufacturing center for fabricated products. The 1990s brought our Learning Center for improved employee productivity and the inclusion of Sweet Controls, which expanded the electronic control product line. Today, the company is operated by the grandson of the original founder.

Products and Services
We manufacture products for residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional use to ensure maximum comfort year-round. Our huge array of products includes water circulation pumps and circulators, hydronic accessories, air elimination and control, heat transfer products, electronic controls, innovative and web-based iWorks for light commercial use, design tools, and variable speed products. There is something for everyone, whether the customer needs to outfit a school with the perfect heating and cooling system or provide the perfect refrigeration and climate controls to a supermarket. We have offered up some of the most unique technological innovations in the industry, including the Load Match system, a green hydronic heating and cooling system that increases energy efficiency and saves money. In addition, our award-winning LoFlo system is also used for green building to reduce pump usage and pipe size in heating and cooling units. This system obtained an honorable mention award from Dealer Design and is known for enabling more precise cooling temperatures. These are just a few great technological innovations our company has brought to the heating, ventilation and air conditioning industry.

Energy Efficient Systems
We have a wide range of energy-efficient systems and components that save money and energy, perfect for individuals building eco-friendly homes. The Load Match and LoFlo systems are both energy efficient, meaning they use less energy to operate than the traditional systems. Because they use less energy, they also save the homeowner money on their utility bills. In addition, some homeowners can obtain tax credits using high-efficiency products from our HVAC company.

Where Our Products are Installed
A number of commercial and residential customers have our HVAC products installed in their facilities and homes. We recently helped a State University out with a satellite chiller plant, complete with our pumps and a custom-built 4900 Air-Dir Separator, which is the largest unit built by us to date. A slew of our products have been installed in a convention center to help keep visitors cozy and comfortable no matter what time of year it is. We are a leading HVAC provider and work to embrace the green movement, which is so important to the planet’s future. With our products all over North America, we help make climate control possible for many people while keeping costs down and values high.


Air conditioners are special elements of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) units. It works just like the refrigeration unit to cool a building. These parts use chilled water or direct expansion coils. Therefore, there are many choices that you can go for. The types that use chilled water for air conditioning are usually chosen for larger commercial buildings. Both coils are often made of aluminum or copper because they are good conductors of heat. They easily pass heat to the refrigerant regardless of its type. The refrigerant is created in a way to absorb heat. It can also reject heat and includes the following components:

One of them is called a compressor. Different types of ACs use diverse compressors such as scroll, reciprocating, screw, rotary, and centrifugal. Another note is that these parts have varying capacities to match different applications. The working principle is quite simple. The compressor pumps the cool refrigerant vapor thus raising its temperature and pressure.

A condenser is another part of the air conditioning unit and its work is to embrace the refrigerant hot vapor from the compressor and immediately transform it into liquid by draining heat from it. While the refrigerant runs, it absorbs heat generated when air gets compressed as it passes through the air conditioner’s evaporator coils. The condenser’s main role is to reject the heat absorbed in the evaporator coil.

The metering device receives the liquid formed through condensation of the refrigerant. These devices can be described as thermostatic expansion valves and they gauge the refrigerants based on the quantity which is required to fulfill the demand. They also use capillary tubes and pistons to gauge any quantity of the refrigerant.

Regardless of the type you pick, the most imperative detail to ensure is that the item can reduce the pressure of the liquid refrigerant. If the pressure goes down, even the temperature levels will drop, and this creates a situation where the liquid is cold enough to enter the evaporator coil.

The evaporator coil plays a very imperative role in heat absorption. When air passes via the coil there is a heat exchange that occurs between the refrigerant and the air itself. So the refrigerant soaks up the heat which causes some of it to become steam. Generally, the evaporator coil is meant to remove latent heat. It also does sensible cooling by removing moisture from the air dropping the air temperature. The unit is fixed adjacent to the air handling unit or even within it to work optimally.

The above components are found in most air conditioner units that are available for sale. For instance, split systems, mainly used in all kinds of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning units, are very popular. They use an outdoor condensing unit with an air handler unit inside. Other major types include package units, which feature the compressor, condenser coil, furnace motor, evaporator coil and refrigerant fixed inside a metal box. You can also find mini splits, rooftop units, wall-mount units, through-wall units and so on.


The term forced air furnace or system is commonly used when speaking about HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air conditioning) systems. Forced Air systems are a good option when one wants to enhance the quality of air inside a building. There are many elements of an HVAC system that are dependent on it, including heat recovery ventilators, humidifiers, air cleaners, and so on. If a home uses radiant heat, a forced air system must be installed to facilitate proper air conditioning. The mechanism usually uses gas as the main firing aid. Even so, it is possible to find forced air systems that use other fossil fuels such as coal. Even electrically powered systems are available. Why should you install a forced air furnace? There are a few advantages that are associated with this type of furnace. Some include the following:

This type of furnace is known to achieve a higher efficiency than many other choices today. A forced air system is cheap and easy to install. Not only is it easily installed, but it is also stress-free to operate. It can be used to dehumidify the air if it has excessive moisture. It can allow you to add components that can further improve the air quality, including UV lights, air filters, humidifiers, etc. This is the only known air distribution system that can work with the central air conditioning unit. Even if the advantages to this mechanism are more than the ones outlined above, it has some demerits too. A few of them include the following. Since the unit requires constant filtration, one may be forced to keep changing air filters, which requires spending money. It could trigger some noises in the furnace. A person who needs to install a forced air furnace must look for a professional who can do ductwork quite well. When choosing furnaces, you may want to consider the differences in their efficiency.

Gas-forced air furnaces are the older versions that we have up until now. They use a thermostat to trigger heating. After that, the burners turn on to heat the combustion chamber located inside the system. As soon as the chamber is hot enough the circulation fan turns on. The cooler air passes via the chamber while gathering heat in the process. This heat is then taken via the ductwork and back to the house where people live. The cycle continues until the thermostat shuts down the heating and cooling process. Unlike the traditional forced air furnaces that used a standing pilot for igniting the burners on the trigger, today’s styles are electronically ignited.

Resuming our efficiency discussion, the term Annual Fuel Usage Estimate or AFUE describes an efficient or inefficient mechanism. Today there are direct furnaces that can attain an AFUE of ninety percent or more. Their combustion air is exited directly outdoors and the chambers are usually sealed to enhance proper control of the process. They have a heat exchanger for absorbing heat from the generated steam and later disposing it into the air.


HVAC technicians undergo rigorous training to understand the complex systems that make up central cooling and heating. Many go to college, or technical or trade schools to learn the basics behind HVAC installation and maintenance. However, many skills can be learned online through specialized training programs sponsored by HVAC professionals and community colleges. These programs have both pros and cons.

Pro: Focused Training
The HVAC training offered online is provided by many different groups including HVAC organizations and community colleges. These programs are specifically developed to help those interested in pursuing a career in HVAC installation and maintenance. They are thus designed to teach only those skills needed in the career. There is no extraneous information as many courses are tailored to correspond directly with certification tests and on-the-job issues HVAC technicians face. The programs cover everything from engineering to mechanics with subjects in everything from electronics to reading blueprints to equipment construction.

Con: Lack of Hands On
One of the most common complaints against online training in any technical field is a lack of direct or hands-on experience. HVAC training online does indeed lack the experience of direct contact with HVAC equipment, but that is only in the initial stages of training. Schooling is only meant to provide the theoretical and mathematical backgrounds that an HVAC technician will need in the field. The hands-on experience comes from apprenticeships, which even those with traditional education complete before becoming certified technicians.

Pro: Flexible Schedules and Individualized Pacing
In-person, HVAC programs can take up to two years to complete. The courses move steadily, but to accommodate all participants, the classes can move much more slowly than many students need. HVAC training online can proceed at an individual’s preferred pace, condensing a two-year course into as little as two months. Individuals can study and learn at their own pace. If one module or subject takes longer to process, the individual can slow down, but he or she is not forced to wait on other students when a subject comes more easily.

Con: Lack of Direct Oversight
Unlike classroom education, online training programs do not have an instructor sitting at the front of a classroom lecturing and peering over students’ shoulders. Instead, instructors build a subject module, which students access alone at their own convenience. This does not mean, however, that online training lacks oversight or even access to instructors. Students who have questions or concerns about a particular problem or module can email their instructor at any time. The instructor will respond within 24 hours and offer guidance in a much more indirect way.

Pro: Accredited Programs Available
Most companies require that an HVAC technician be trained at an accredited school and receive certification before applying for a job. Luckily, a number of the online training programs available for HVAC technicians are developed by accredited schools and even HVAC organizations. By finding the right program, an interested student need not go into debt to attend special colleges. These accredited online programs provide specialized training.

Overall, the pros of HVAC training online far outweigh the cons. To meet the unique and nontraditional needs of many seeking training in HVAC maintenance, online training offers a sufficient and welcome opportunity.


A duct system is a part of a heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system used to purify the air inside a building. First-time installers of this system should call an HVAC professional to create a design and recommend the best type of ducting. Other projects that might become necessary later on might include repairs or replacements of parts or the entire HVAC ductwork. As a result, it is important to gather many different tips regarding various systems to know when and how to troubleshoot them.

Duct installation tips
If you are a naturally technical expert, you may consider installing a new ductwork yourself. Safety comes first even if you are good at any technical job. Find do-it-yourself classes in your local area. Some stores provide lessons on how to install the ducting. If you are not sure where to start and do not want to employ someone you can go to class and learn how to do it. Get the right tools for the job, including a drill, hand tongs, a nut and screwdriver, cutters for sheet metal, hand snips, a tape measure, a tinners hammer, a bar fold tool, and so on. You can learn of the most imperative tools during your class attendance. Remember that the cuts must be accurate, and you cannot achieve this without proper tools. You must also use a tape measure to get the ductwork measurements right. You can measure two times if this is necessary. Write down the measurements as you derive them. Use the right HVAC designs and ductwork components such as stacks, heads, boots, start-offs, vibration isolators, terminal units, and so on. The trouble comes on the part of creating the correct design for your HVAC ductwork. If you cannot do the installation then feel free to spend some money on someone who can do a perfect job. You can use the internet to find local installation experts.

Ductwork cleaning tips
The United States Environmental Protection Agency recommends when it should be necessary to clean the ducting system. The EPA considers it needless to clean the system if, after a thorough virtual assessment of the inner parts of the ducts, you do not notice any signs of contamination. The contaminants include heaps of debris, molds, or damp or musty smell. You may decide to clean your system if: You are currently experiencing some breathing problems usually caused by the presence of molds, dust, and excessive dampness during sleep. The air in your rooms feels unclean and limited. Someone in your house has unusual allergies, sneezing, irritability, and other sickness symptoms. The cleaning procedure is intricate and calling a professional to help you is very much recommended. The cleaning methods are numerous and can vary, even if they all meet industry standards. The technical expert has to use certain tools to unblock various parts and later on use a strong vacuum cleaner on them. Some providers use given chemicals inside the ducting and they are meant for killing the living contaminants. Still, there is a group of service providers that make use of sealants to coat the inner of the air ducts and other housing units to keep molds from growing.


Our HVAC company is a family-oriented company that provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning solutions for residential, commercial and industrial use. The company is committed to providing the best business-to-customer and business-to-business solutions available.

About the Company
It was founded in 1946 with an importance on ethics and quality. We believe the ethical way is the only way to operate our business. Our products can be found worldwide, though we are a small company with an intimate and dedicated staff. Our products are also found in prestigious projects around the world, proof that a small company can have a far reach if its goals are formulated in the right way.

Products and Services
Our HVAC company provides air distribution solutions to residential, commercial, and industrial customers. Just a few of the products we provide include chilled beam alternatives, underfloor distribution products, grilles, diffusers, terminal units, and air coils. We also provide software to help select the best products and training for those who want to understand green building and those who want to consult an engineer before their next project. With a wide range of products and services, our company serves the entire HVAC industry.

Landmark Installations
Though a small company, we have a far reach. Our products are in many impressive projects, including the Guggenheim Museum in Spain. The Bank of China in Beijing and the International Space Station also boast our products. We are a major player in the global industry, and our products were chosen for these locations for a reason. The support found at our company is as much an important part of their services as the quality products they sell.

Environmental Consciousness
We are the founder of eco Shield, which is the industry’s first natural fiber installation, created from recycled denim. This isn’t the only eco-friendly product we have to offer, either. Many of our products are GreenSpec listed, including displacement ventilation products, chilled beams, underfloor units, diffusers, grilles, and more. We provide an entire line of products to environmentally conscious customers. We also commit to helping customers gain LEED credits with a wide variety of their products.

Technological Innovations
Our HVAC company is continuously innovative in the HVAC industry. The TFS and Fantom Intelligently Quiet fan-powered terminals are just two of the innovations the company has brought forth. These units are smaller, quieter, and less costly than traditional terminal units. We are also the creator of the #1 flow sensor on the market, the AeroCross, which is part of the terminal unit system. We are also responsible for the TDX ULTRA. This diffuser features the highest mixing ratio on the market and is designed to produce high and low-velocity zones where room air is induced and mixes rapidly. These are just a few of the innovations this company is responsible for.

Our HVAC company has strong roots and far-reaching limbs. Our products and services have placed us on the list of top HVAC companies in the US.


Water-source HVAC units are quickly gaining popularity over refrigerant-based units. Water is less expensive and less harmful than modern refrigerants, and it is a great heat conductor in many climate control systems. There are three main types of water source HVAC units on the market:

Geothermal Heat Pumps
Geothermal heat pumps are the most popular water source HVAC unit. These work by taking advantage of the heat generated deep within the Earth. The process of establishing a geothermal heat pump consists of placing pipes deep into the Earth to create a closed loop. Water traveling down through the pipes is then heated by the warmth of the Earth and pumped back to the surface to be used in HVAC applications. For extreme temperatures, however, a supplemental heating and cooling system may be necessary. Home heating, hot water, and even air conditioning can all be provided by geothermal heat pumps.

Chiller Units
Chillers are another example of water-source HVAC units. As their name implies, they chill the water traveling through pipes instead of heating it. Water source chillers use vapor compression technology to cool air and water effectively. Water compression works by tightly compressing water that has removed heat from surrounding space and moving it to an area where it can expand. The expanded water cools quickly and returns to the warm space to collect more heat. While this is a wonderful alternative to refrigerant-based systems, it does require an electric or gas-powered engine to pump the water through the loop.

Solar-Powered Heat Pumps
Another very popular alternative to a refrigerant-based heating and cooling system is a solar-powered heat pump. Because the sun’s energy is limitless, using this method to heat water pumped into a home is highly efficient. Solar panels absorb the sun’s heat, which is transferred to the direct loop or a reservoir like a hot water tank. On days when the sun isn’t enough to heat the water, a backup system, usually electric or gas-powered, makes up for what the solar panels cannot collect. In some industrial and commercial settings, a combination of these three HVAC units is necessary for all of the heating, cooling, and ventilation needs of a building. In industrial settings, geothermal heat pumps are used mainly for providing heated air to factories and foundries. For hot water, solar-powered heat pumps placed on the roofs of these large buildings do a great job of providing all that is needed. The geothermal heat pump is an auxiliary means of providing heated water at night and during cloudy days. Chiller units are used to provide cooled air and they efficiently de-humidify both large and small industrial spaces.

In conclusion, there is a water source HVAC unit for nearly every application and scenario. Water has long been known to conduct heat efficiently and cheaply to consumers. These HVAC units utilize water and basic physics to provide heating, cooling, and ventilation needs to homes worldwide. Whether geothermal or solar-powered, these units can save consumers money while working to save the environment.


Innovative and green technology, new construction, and the retrofitting of older homes and buildings have combined with a growing population to create an increasingly high demand for skilled heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) industry employees. Although there are too many variables to define a typical HVAC engineer job description precisely, the primary duties of these engineers are to design, manufacture, and test air conditioning, ventilation and heating equipment.

The Engineer as Designer
While still in the planning phase of construction, an HVAC engineer will perform calculations to predict how the structure will consume energy, and large construction projects often use several different types of designers or engineers to work cooperatively toward planning and providing the specifications for the HVAC system. Depending on the project size, a typical HVAC engineer job description may vary. Still, responsibilities usually include system design for new buildings and conducting studies or upgrades on systems in existing buildings to ensure optimal climate control, particularly in large office and industrial buildings where safe and healthy conditions depend on the regulation of temperature and humidity.

Testing, especially for heating and cooling loads and the energy consumption and requirements for a building, is almost always part of a typical HVAC engineer job description, and the ability to solve problems through the process of elimination by ruling out certain factors is crucial. Most modern testing tools are software applications, and most HVAC engineers use computers to run simulations of load calculations and energy performance, as well as software that will predict the pressure and temperatures inside pipes and ducts. Additionally, data logging and handheld devices that measure temperature and pressure are also used.

One of the most vital components of a typical HVAC engineer job description is working with mechanical contractors during construction to ensure systems are built and installed as intended. This part of the job may also include reviewing the design and system specifications, additional calculations and testing during the manufacturing process, and being responsible for cost estimates on all projects. Additionally, interpersonal skills, strong communication skills, and problem-solving skills are key for HVAC designers to effectively communicate with clients, contractors, and others involved in the manufacturing process.

Education and Advancement Opportunities
Most HVAC engineers possess a bachelor’s degree in either HVAC or mechanical engineering, and many are skilled in computer-aided drafting (CAD). Strong spatial intelligence is helpful, along with computer skills and experience with various industry-related software applications. Many HVAC engineers become senior engineers, start their own design and manufacturing businesses, or work as independent consultants. Advancement opportunities for the next 10 years or so are almost unlimited due to new technologies in the industry, new construction, and a constantly increasing population that has grown dependent on climate control.

Potential Income
Like HVAC service techs, those engineers who specialize will increase their potential for both income and advancement. Construction companies, mechanical contracting services, miscellaneous private businesses, and local, state, and federal government facilities typically hire HVAC engineers, particularly when seeking new and different ways to reduce the energy consumption of their HVAC systems. Those with a working knowledge of green technologies, such as solar, wind, and water-powered will also increase their opportunities, as will those familiar with computer-controlled smart systems. Overall, several duties are common to most HVAC engineers, but it is difficult to be too specific about what constitutes a typical HVAC engineer job description. These job descriptions not only differ according to the type of company and the size of a project but are also in a state of almost constant change due to innovative technologies that provide the impetus for new and improved designs of HVAC systems.


There is an industry maxim that states HVAC technicians have to be a combination of engineer and mechanic, and this is especially true of an HVAC leadman. While this qualification may not be listed in a typical HVAC leadman job description, these individuals must possess a thorough knowledge of the design aspects and mechanical and electrical components that comprise most HVAC systems and must also have the skills to supervise and motivate working crews of technicians.

Knowledge and Mechanical Skill Requirements
When considering the duties and characteristics required of a typical HVAC leadman job description, one of the most important is a certain level of spatial intelligence and an aptitude for mechanical systems. A good leadman will also possess comprehensive knowledge of the technical aspects of most climate control systems, along with the ability to perform testing, maintenance, and repairs on a wide range of models. Additionally, problem-solving skills, particularly the ability to resolve complicated problems challenging for crew technicians or mechanics, are crucial.

Motivational Skills and Additional Duties
Although specific job descriptions vary, a typical HVAC leadman job description will stress the importance of motivational and leadership skills, along with organizational skills, to effectively run projects of all sizes and to motivate and supervise a crew of up to 20 technicians, depending on the project size. Additionally, they may need to size and design piping systems and be familiar with OSHA safety regulations. An effective HVAC leadman will also possess excellent communication skills, as they will not only be working with crew members, but also with clients, building inspectors, and job or project superintendents. Bilingual skills are also desirable.

Education and Experience Required
A typical HVAC leadman job description will usually specify that the individual must have either seven years of experience in the field or three years of related experience and four years of federally approved training. The most desirable experience is in mechanical installation and repair, in addition to any legally required licenses and/or certificates for handling refrigerants. There are a variety of additional certifications and licenses available for various specialized areas in the industry, such as commercial refrigeration, or solar-powered HVAC systems.

Average Income
According to PayScale. com and SimplyHired. com, the typical Salary for an HVAC leadman in the United States is $52,482 $74,537, while the average salary is $67,000. Additionally, according to SimplyHired. com, the available HVAC leadman jobs have increased and are expected to grow. This projection is based on the increasing demand for new construction and retrofitting of older buildings, and the fact that many industry workers are nearing retirement age. As such, the projected salaries can be expected to increase proportionately.

The Future of an HVAC Leadman
In both the immediate and distant future, the typical HVAC leadman job description will include tasks that focus on a variety of ways to conserve energy consumption for both existing and new buildings. Rising energy costs have resulted in designing, building, and installing more efficient systems. Additionally, several newer technologies considered more environmentally friendly are already being installed and used. The HVAC leadman who can demonstrate knowledge and experience in these areas will be in greater demand for years. Overall, technological advances, new residential and commercial construction, retrofitting of older homes and businesses, and a continuously increasing population will most likely continue to provide increased employment opportunities for the HVAC leadman for some years.


Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) techs are tradespersons trained to install, maintain, and repair climate control systems. Although an HVAC service tech’s responsibilities may vary depending on a variety of such factors as regional climate, the type of company, and the individual employer, the typical HVAC service tech job description will usually include four basic duties: installation, troubleshooting, maintenance, and customer service/sales.

Installation and Troubleshooting
The typical HVAC Service Technician job description will require these individuals to follow specifications for installing different heating systems powered by a variety of fuels, in addition to air conditioning systems and heat pumps. They usually install air ducts and vents, pumps, and fuel and water supply lines. At this point, they often connect the unit to the electrical system and perform a variety of checks to ensure the unit is operating at a level of optimal efficiency and safety. HVAC technicians also diagnose and repair any malfunctioning units or components and perform routine maintenance.

Customer Service and Sales
Building strong and positive customer relationships is an integral part of a typical HVAC Technician job description, as the tech is usually the client’s only link to the company. Techs are commonly expected to sell service contracts to both new and existing clients. This system provides the client with an ongoing source of trusted, reliable, personalized service, prevents seasonal work overloads, and ensures revenue for the tech and/or their employer. As such, good customer relations are crucial for building and maintaining a customer base, as well as the trust and good will of clients.

Education Required
Heating, air, and refrigeration systems are becoming increasingly sophisticated and complex. As a result, many HVAC companies are finding that the job is beginning to require more than good mechanical aptitude and spatial intelligence. Although HVAC Technicians can still learn on the job, most employers now prefer to employ those who have completed a formal apprenticeship, or trade school/technical school training, and these programs often take between 6 months to two years to complete. Most branches of the armed forces also provide HVAC service tech training.

Physical Challenges
A significant proportion of physically demanding work is included in the typical HVAC service tech job description, and it usually requires sitting, standing, and walking, each about one-third of the time. However, there is also lifting, carrying, stooping, kneeling, crawling, climbing, balancing, and working in cramped or awkward positions. Depending on the employer and the job site, a tech is often exposed to extremes of temperature and dirty or dusty conditions. Additionally, there are potential respiratory hazards from dust, asbestos, and refrigerant, along with danger from electrical wires and/or flammable fuel lines.

Changes in the Works
The demand for qualified HVAC techs is expected to increase faster than the average for all other occupations. This increase is due to estimated replacement timeframes of old and malfunctioning equipment, in addition to the expected retirement of current techs and the increased complexity of newer systems. New technologies in solar energy, hydronics (water-based heating systems), and other green technologies, along with computer-controlled smart-home systems, will affect the typical HVAC service tech job description, as many techs will bring an increased skill set to the job and may limit themselves to the specialization of one particular aspect of the industry. HVAC techs are responsible for installing and maintaining temperature control systems. These techs are educated and skilled, and their jobs often take them to schools, apartment complexes, factories, nursing homes, and numerous other facilities where indoor climate control and air quality are integral for optimal comfort and health of the employees, visitors, and residents of these facilities. However, these jobs can be physically demanding, and potentially dangerous.


Society is constantly looking for the ultimate level of comfort. Underfloor heating systems originally designed for single rooms, such as master bathrooms are now being used in entire homes to provide heating and even air conditioning. Underfloor heating is a great option for office buildings, homes, hotels, and apartment complexes.

Electric Underfloor Heating
Electric underfloor heating is most often seen in single-room applications. Master bathrooms and single bedrooms benefit most from this type of heat source. The coils, carbon films, and pre-formed cable mats that carry the heat have a very low profile. For this reason, they can be installed directly under nearly any type of flooring. Electric underfloor units can only provide heat, however, and are not typically recommended for large or commercial spaces. Small, pre-fabricated underfloor units are easy to install and can completely change the thermal dynamics of nearly any space.

Hydronic Underfloor Heating and Cooling
Hydronic underfloor units can heat, cool and dehumidify a room. Hydronic units use pipes filled with heated or chilled water to provide climate control. Boilers and chillers are responsible for heating or cooling the water in the pipes, and an electric or gas-powered engine pumps the water through the closed loop. Hydronic underfloor systems are commonly seen in office and apartment applications to utilize spaces below floors further. When constructed, apartment and office buildings already have spaces under the floors for carrying cables, phone lines, and ductwork. This is the space where hydronic underfloor unit pipes are usually installed.

Underfloor heating is renowned for its ability to heat surfaces that would otherwise stay cool throughout the year. While modern forced-air HVAC systems are designed to be extremely efficient at heating and cooling, there is no comparison to adequately heated concrete, slate, and tile floors. This is especially true in bathrooms and master bedrooms. Underfloor heating is also a great option for areas susceptible to mold and mildew since closed water loops and electric wires are not conducive to their growth. Low-temperature underfloor units do not create burn or fire hazards since they do not occupy any wall space.

The efficiency of underfloor units has been debated for decades, but recent scientific studies have shown significant decreases in energy costs compared to other heating units. Several factors, including insulation ratings, depth of floor panels, and surface material characteristics, can all have a profound effect on the efficiency of underfloor units. Qualified designers and HVAC technicians are trained to consider these factors when recommending or installing underfloor units. There are many variations of these units for nearly any installation scenario. Although underfloor heating is a good option for nearly any space, several factors must be considered before and during installation. The pipes carrying heated and chilled water in hydronic settings will have some effect on wiring, pipes, and ductwork under the floor. It is important to insulate these things in order to prevent undesirable effects thoroughly. The floors themselves must be rated to withstand the shrinkage and expansion created by these types of units. Concrete, terrazzo, and tile all expand and contract with climate changes, so the correct underfloor unit at the correct temperature and depth must be considered. Underfloor heating and cooling units can be used in nearly any setting. With the correct design and installation, they can provide an unsurpassed level of comfort. Whether used in one room or throughout an entire home or building, underfloor heating in HVAC systems is a very effective and efficient method of providing nearly any type of climate control.


Ventilating an attic is extremely important throughout the year, regardless of the climate. There are many different techniques used for attic ventilation, including rafter vents, soffit vents, and attic fans. Ventilating attics with ridge vents is a more recent method that works with eave venting to improve the temperature and humidity within the attic.

Why Attic Ventilation Is Important
From hot, humid days to cold, windy nights, a well-ventilated attic can reduce energy costs and prolong the life of your home. A hot summer day can result in 160-degree temperatures inside an attic with poor ventilation. During the winter, a lack of ventilation retains the warmth inside the home. When the cold outside air meets the heated roof, condensation can occur inside the attic and could lead to moisture, dampness, or even water damage. Ice damming is a common winter problem associated with poor attic ventilation as well.

What Is a Ridge Vent?
Ridge vents are generally found on residential structures with shingled roofs and function with soffit vents to control the climate within the attic. Usually made of weather-resistant metal or durable plastic, the ridge vent is installed at the roof’s peak and runs along the entire length of the home. This type of attic ventilation is appealing because the vent is covered with shingles to blend into the roofline; making it an attractive option for modern homes. Some ridge vents include weather filters and baffles for increased efficiency.

How a Ridge Vent Works
Attractiveness isn’t the only reason more people ventilate attics with ridge vents. Studies have found that ridge vents, along with properly spaced eave vents, can drastically reduce energy costs in the summer and winter. An attic ventilation system creates a path that allows for continuous airflow and produces a cooling effect. Air is pulled through the soffit vents and flows out through higher vents. The design of a ridge vent allows air to flow across the roof peak, resulting in a Venturi effect that circulates even more air through the attic.

The Benefits of Ridge Venting
The unobtrusive appearance of ridge vents has already been mentioned, but there are many other benefits of ventilating attics with ridge vents. Unlike gable vents that work best when the wind moves in a particular direction, ridge vents are consistently effective regardless of the weather and wind. Because hot air rises, a ridge vent can remove the warmest air from the attic due to its position along the roof’s peak. Ridge vents can also provide balanced ventilation across the attic rather than a limited space. Ventilating attics with ridge vents is an effective way to protect your home and lower your energy costs. Most roofing companies are qualified to install ridge vents. The important thing to remember when ventilating attics with ridge vents is to include an adequate number of eave or soffit vents and to close off or remove any existing gable vents.


HVAC dampers play a strong role in controlling indoor heating and cooling. They are directly used by the heating and cooling units to reduce the air conditioning level to a section of the house that is not frequently used. Another common use for dampers is to minimize the airflow to the outside of a house, especially if they are installed at the chimney region. They are manual, electrical and pneumatic styles in the market today. Perhaps some of you already imagine that a damper is a complicated item. The truth is that the item is made of strong sheet metal materials that you know of, such as galvanized steel or aluminum. You truly need this item if you expect your HVAC System to operate optimally and last longer. If dampers are installed properly, they will help regulate heat, airflow, and humidity. If they are absent, you might have problems with mold, stuffy and musty air and imbalanced hot and cold spots in various rooms. Perhaps the main reason why you truly need to have someone fix these items is to cut back your monthly costs. As mentioned earlier, the item’s main role is to limit the air conditioning process to the areas frequently used by the people in your house. The areas that are rarely used do not require serious air cooling and heating, and you can manage to reduce your monthly energy bills as a result. These devices are categorized based on their main roles. Hence, you can find zone control styles that generally apply motorized capabilities. They can regulate airflow to any other part of the home, and each zone is often aligned directly with the motor. This is known to last longer because it consists of a coupler that limits the movement of other sections.

Another common type is called a backdraft damper, and it is known to allow one-way transmission of air. As a result, back-drafts are positioned on the wall facing a certain direction only and are mostly circular. The incoming air set to flow in a certain direction only forces the dampers to open and close when the gush of air is stopped. The closing mechanism denies any returning air from the opposite direction entry into the system. The type is perfect for heat exchangers, solar heaters and exhaust systems. They are installed uprightly or parallel and can be necessary when the electrically run dampers are available or not preferred for given reasons.

Economizer damper styles are part of the bigger and related Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning units. These enable air to flow from outside to the interiors of a building. Usually, this unit boasts two dampers: an outside damper and a return air damper. They are also known to reduce energy costs. Last but not least are the face and bypass dampers. Their main role is to regulate temperatures indoors via a cooling coil.


Heat pumps are energy efficient and reliable because they heat and cool simultaneously. As a result, you do not need to install two heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems to cool and heat your house. Today they are very much preferred to gas or oil furnaces by many homeowners who care about environmental pollution. Are you looking to cut back on your monthly power bills, and you live in moderately hot and cold climates? If so, use the heat pump instead of the older hvac unit.

Working mechanism of a heat pump
The underlying principle for the heat pump is heat transfer. Heat will naturally move from a point of high to a low concentration. Therefore, a pump is designed in a way to reverse this natural behavior such that it attempts to pull heat from where it is less concentrated to where it is more concentrated and vice versa. It generally gathers heat from a source and transmits it to a colder area or from a colder area to a hotter area. In short, it can heat and cool a house simultaneously.

The kinds of HVAC heat pumps available
There are many different types that you can choose but there are few that are popularly used by building owners. One of them is called an air source heat pump. This is alternatively called an air-air source. Its work is to absorb heat from the outer air and to pump it inside the house to provide the much-needed hot sensation. The parts that enable it to perform its job are very familiar coils that carry the refrigerant, which absorbs the heat being tapped from the outdoor air. Perhaps you are almost concluding that the air-source HP is only necessary for heating a home. The item can also be remodeled to work in a reverse direction so that it absorbs and dissipates heat from the indoor air. Most of them have a reversing valve to allow heating and cooling.

Another type of HP is called a Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP). Its working mechanism is quite different in that it sucks heat from an underground source and conveys it into the house. It can also absorb indoor heat and convey it into the ground. This is also called a geothermal heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning unit. Usually, it consists of piping loops put into the ground and water (refrigerant) is made to pass through them. A mixture of glycol and water is also used as a refrigerant for conveying heat. The pipes are buried about sixty to two hundred feet below the ground and configured in several ways. In a closed loop system, the piping loops are arranged horizontally or vertically. They can also be dipped into an underground water table or lake. In an open loop system, they must be dipped into an underground water pool established to exist.


Air handlers have many uses with HVAC systems. They have many uses, such as providing fresh air inside a house, and they are usually the main part of an air conditioning unit. The larger commercial buildings require big air handlers that can move up to ten thousand CFM. If you are thinking of buying an air handler unit, you need to find out more information about it. It has some parts that are described below.

Blower: Alternatively called a fan, a blower is often large and cage-like. It is propelled by an alternating current electric motor, and when it spins, it moves air. The item is known to run at multiple speeds or only one speed. It can also be propelled by the variable frequency drive, which increases the rate of airflow and its range. The residential AH styles, usually the air conditioners, use brushless direct current electric motors with variable speed options. The larger commercial buildings require a system that has many blowers simultaneously. These AHUs frequently consist of multiple blowers at one end, supply fans where the supply ductwork begins, and are further enhanced by return fans on the return air duct.

Filters: The air handler unit must contain air filters for sieving air before it enters the house to ensure it is clean for breathing. Many filters can work with an AH unit, such as electrostatic, High-Efficiency Particulate Arrestance or HEPA, pleated, fiberglass, and others. Two or more of these sieves can be used to ensure the incoming or returning air is completely clean. In short, course-grade and fine-grade filters must be used together. One of them can be the cheaper variety as you can replace it regularly to protect the other one. If you do not replace this item it could collapse because it cannot withstand the pressure from the blower.

Heating and cooling parts: the AHUs’ main role is to provide heating and cooling benefits and to do that, they need to have special parts. One of these parts includes the fuel burning heater which is also called the refrigeration evaporator. It is located in the air flow directly. The systems might also benefit from heat pumps and electric resistance elements. The whole thing depends on the kind of building in question. A big commercial AHU might include some coils for supplying vapor for heating and cold water for cooling. The vapor comes from the central furnace/boiler while the cold water comes from the central chiller. Your HVAC unit is unique and it should use unique air handlers too. The humidifiers are used to increase the moisture level in the air, especially in the colder areas. The indoor air is always hot to make the dwellers comfortable. As a result, the ever-heated air might be too dry, which could affect its quality. There are various types of humidification, including ultrasonic, vaporizers, evaporative and several others.


Licensing requirements for HVAC technicians and contractors vary widely from state to state, and a technician working in Texas might not be permitted to do the same job in another state. Below is an overview of some differing policies within the U. S. General Licensing Requirements. In general, most states require an HVAC technician to have undergone at least two years or 4,000 hours of training, and to pass a state examination. In some states, this education may be gained through an apprenticeship or on-the-job training, while other states require that the trainee attend a two-year college or trade school. States that do not require a specific form of training still generally require that certified technicians have taken a state-approved examination qualifying them for professional work.

Rigorous Policies
Some states have quite rigorous licensure requirements. California, for example, has no less than 43 regulations governing contractor licensing! HVAC contractors only need to obtain one of these licenses, however. The C20 can be acquired upon taking an examination and paying a $400 fee, but the prospective technician must also be able to prove that he or she has undergone at least four years of certified training. Technicians must also be bonded and undergo a background check run by the FBI.

Moderate Policies
States such as Washington and Oregon do not require prospective technicians to take a state-approved examination but expect HVAC contractors to have completed at least 4,000 hours of work in the field in which they are certified. In general, states with moderately lenient HVAC licensing regulations tend to have county and city laws that vary from place to place; these may enforce stricter policies than those dictated by state laws.

States that Do Not Require Licensing
Illinois is one of the few states that does not currently require licensing for HVAC technicians, but this may change in the near future. Several groups have been advocating different regulation and licensing policies to be adopted by the state, including some which are quite strict and others which appear more lenient. Because HVAC technician licensing is not required by the state, county, and city policies, vary widely, as each district must devise its own set of rules and regulations.

Determining the License Laws for Your State
Wherever you live, the best way to determine the licensing requirements for your state is to contact either the state regulatory agency (if there is one) or a local HVAC contractor who may be able to supply you with the resources and information that you need. Websites such as the one published by the National Contractor License Service also provide information on the contact information for regulatory services in every state. While licensing rules and regulations can seem intimidating, they have been put in place to protect home and business owners from poorly designed or installed HVAC systems and not to prevent technicians from making a living! With diligence and the appropriate attitude, a good technician should be capable of meeting regulatory requirements in any state.


York is one of the oldest HVAC companies in the world and boasts operations in more than 120 companies. A leader in the heating, ventilation and air conditioning industry, York is responsible for some of the most innovative technology in the last half-century. Providing services for residential, commercial and light industrial properties, York HVAC is a diverse company with a lengthy history.

History of the Company
York was started by six men, Jacob Loucks, Robert L. Shetter, Stephen Morgan Smith, George H. Buck, Henry H. LaMotte, and Oliver J. Bollinger, in the year 1874. The business became a partnership nearly ten years later when their first ice machine was created and sold to a customer in Mississippi. The first foreign office was opened in 1923 in London, and throughout the years, York became a private and public company numerous times. 1993 saw sales shoot past the $2 billion mark for the first time in company history, cementing the company’s role in the industry.

Products and Services
Residential York HVAC products include everything from air conditioners and furnaces to heat pumps and indoor air quality controls. Light commercial products range from packaged heating and cooling units to split systems, and both air and water-cooled indoor package units. Their industrial lines provide food and beverage refrigeration and controllers for supermarkets, restaurants and convenience stores. York HVAC provides one of the most comprehensive lines on the market and maintains more than 13,000 employees.

Technological Innovations
In the 1920s, York developed a refrigeration system for a small English dairy that grew to be the largest in the world. It helped make pasteurization a reality, saving huge amounts of waste. The company also created the first ice makers for hotels, restaurants and hospitals. The company saw huge success in the 1990s when chlorofluorocarbons were banned, and York had alternative cooling products that would help update home cooling systems, removing CFCs. The company has contributed greatly to the HVAC industry with brilliant innovations that helped fuel industry growth.

Energy Efficient Systems
York HVAC may not be the most outspoken company regarding environmental concerns, but a large part of the company has always been focused on creating more efficient systems. Many of their products contain the EnergyStar seal, meeting federal efficiency guidelines. Their high-efficiency products allow many residents to qualify for tax credits and enable customers to save money on energy costs. York is active with the Energy Efficiency Forum, the UNFCCC Climate Change Conference, and the Clinton Climate Initiative.

Landmark Installations
In 1992, York created a manufacturing plant for milk refrigeration units in Russia. The result eliminated about 80% of the annual milk spoilage, about half of the total milk produced. The company was also responsible for building a water-chilling system for the English Channel Tunnel and Norway’s largest ammonia refrigeration system. York HVAC has even designed and implemented heating and cooling systems for the US Capitol Building. York HVAC is among the most influential companies in the heating, ventilation and air conditioning industry. With companies in hundreds of countries and some of the most innovative technology in the industry, it’s clear that York HVAC will be around for quite some time.


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