water heater repair

Water Heater Replacement

An outdated water heater can be very expensive to maintain. It’ll keep on breaking down due to wear and tear. Traditional water heaters consume more energy compared to modern heating systems of today. Think about getting a water heater replacement before it’s too late.

If your tank is getting rusty, it’s about time for you to buy a newer heater system. There are a lot of water heaters out in the market. How would you know which would suit your household? Below are some tips on how to choose a replacement water heater.

Know your budget.
You should know how much you are willing to spend in buying a new water heater. It is a waste of time to look for expensive heaters that are beyond your financial capability. Expect to spend a little more on additional costs like installation and other items you may need upon replacing your old unit. However, don’t always go for the cheapest unit. You may end up buying a new water heater sooner than you’ve expected.

Consider the size of your new heater system.
Make sure your new water heater is suitable for your needs. This will ensure that you will have enough hot water when you need it. Buying a heater too small will charge you more on your power consumption. Always buy a properly sized water heater appropriate for you and your family.

Check the water heater’s efficiency.
Replacing your water heater can be very expensive at first. But in the long run, you will notice that your electric bill has decreased compared in the past. Modern water heaters are now designed to be energy-efficient, helping homeowners to cut back on their energy costs. Maximize your energy by choosing a unit with a high energy factor.

Take note of the first-hour rating.
You can find the FHR once you read the Energy Guide label. It is recommended to choose a water heater that has an FHR within 1-2 gallons of your peak demand. This will tell you how much hot water is available anytime of the day.

Water Heater Replacement

Look for a space-saver water heater.
Tankless water heaters don’t take much space compared to conventional units. These newer systems don’t need to keep the water hot since they don’t have a storage tank. On-demand water heaters will only heat water as needed. Buy two separate units if you want to use the shower and dishwasher at the same time.

Count the cost.
Cheaper water heaters would eventually be the most expensive units to maintain. Their parts are more likely to malfunction, causing you to spend more on water heater repairs.

Replacement water heaters can be very expensive compared to simple system repairs. However, you must realize that modern water heaters nowadays are more cost-efficient and have a high heating capacity than your old unit. Always ask help from a specialist in water heater repair Raleigh NC when it’s time for a replacement water heater. This is to ensure your next heating system will be perfect for your family.

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Water Heater Maintenance

Your water heater doesn’t get much attention as it stands quietly in your garage or utility room for a long time. However, when your unit begins to act up, that’s the only time you start making a move. This should not always be the case since a water heater is essential in your daily living. Keep your water heater system in shape by performing maintenance every six months.

Proper Maintenance of Water Heater
Water heater maintenance won’t cost you much compared to a replacement water heater. With proper maintenance, you can prolong your water heater’s lifespan up to 13 years. Set a specific date and mark your calendar to remind you when it’s time to maintain your unit. Contact a specialist if you don’t feel comfortable in maintaining your water heater on your own.

Shut down your circuit breaker or gas supply. This is an important step to ensure your safety and protection while maintaining your water heater. You can also stick a note in the breaker to let everyone know not to turn on the power. It is very dangerous to perform water heater repairs while your unit is still turned on.

Lower your tank’s temperature between 155 and 120 degrees. Too much heat can cause your tank to overheat and consume more energy. This step should not be repeated if you have a stable water heater temperature.

Check your T&P valve. This valve is usually located on top of the water heater. Test if you have a faulty valve by lifting the lever and snap it right back into position. During this process, you should hear a gurgling sound while water runs out into the drain tube. You may need to replace your valve if you didn’t hear any sound from your tank.

Remove sediment from the bottom of your tank. Sediment buildup can cause your water heater to rust and corrode, greatly affecting its heating efficiency. Prevent this from happening by draining and flushing your water heater at least twice in a year. It is recommended to turn off your water heater one night before you flush it. This can help protect you from scalding your skin. Begin by turning off the water supply to prevent water from entering your tank. Attach a hose to the drain valve and place the other end of the hose where a large quantity of water can be drained. Once the water stops to flow, open your pressure release valve to continue draining until your tank is empty. Flush it by turning the water back on until the sediments are removed. You can now refill your tank once the water runs clear. Make sure to close the drain and pressure release valve before refilling.

Check your anode rods. Anode rods deteriorate if you have been using your water heater for a long time. It is important to replace your rod before corrosion eats your tank away. Serious water heater leaks can cause you to replace your old heater unexpectedly.

Water Heater Maintenance

Check for loose pipe fittings, connections and valves. You have to make sure your water heater is not leaking from time to time. Tighten the pipes, connections and valves using a wrench to prevent water from leaking. Simply use a wrench to tighten them. Be careful not to over tighten the screws and pipes as this can bring damage to your tank. If you need to replace a valve, use a Teflon tape to wrap around the threads.

Performing water heater maintenance will be easy if you contact a professional in Chicago water heater repair immediately. Now you can sit back and relax knowing your water heater is handled by a specialist.

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Water Heater Leaking

It can be annoying to mop your floor daily if you find your water heater leaking. Stop this from happening by finding the source of the leaks immediately. Your water heater tank is made having an inner tank, insulation in the middle and a painted outer tank. If there are no leaks coming from the pipes and valves, there may be holes in your tank. These holes can be the reason why your water heater is leaking from the bottom. Getting help from water heater specialists is a good start. They have more experience in dealing with water heater repairs than you do.
Leaking can decrease your water heater’s efficiency, resulting in your energy bill to soar. Prevent this from happening by stopping the leaks beforehand. You might want to check different areas where leaks can happen. Doing regular maintenance also helps in extending your unit’s lifespan.

Checking the leak source.
If you continue getting cold-water leaks, you probably have a faulty intake. This is very simple to repair since you can just get it replaced. However, hot-water leaks may indicate a serious water heater problem. You may want to get a new unit since your old heater has already rusted away.

Tighten your drain valve.
Having a loose drain valve can easily lead to your water to leak. It is important to deal this problem right away to avoid further damage. Leaks will be obvious if you see drips of water around it. Stop your water heater from leaking by tightening the drain valve using a wrench. Be careful not to over tighten the valve as this can damage your unit. If the leak persists, you should get help from a specialist.

Releasing Pressure from the tank.
To ensure your safety, shut your gas or power supply down before releasing pressure. Water supply should also be turned off to prevent water from entering your tank. Now you can release pressure from the tank by opening the drain valve for a few seconds. You should hear the sound of water entering the pipes. Close the drain valve after feeling the pressure and turn your water inlet on. Observe if the drain valve is still leaking.

Drain valve replacement.

If releasing pressure isn’t enough, look at replacing your drain valve immediately. To do this, simply drain your water tank by attaching a hose to the drain valve. Open the valve until no water is left.

Water Heater Leaking

Attach the new drain valve to stop your water heater from leaking. Use a Teflon tape and tighten it well. By this time, water leaks should have stopped. If the leak continues, your tank may have rusted completely. Unfortunately, this calls for a water heater replacement.
If the problem gets too difficult to deal with, always contact a specialist for help. Leaving it in the hands of a professional will lessen the chances of accidents from happening. Paying a small price for your family’s safety is definitely worth every penny. A water heater repair Fort Collins will help you solve your heater leaking problems.

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Hot Water Heater Leaking

You may assume that you can take care of leaks on your own. You’re far from being right because this could be an extremely dangerous task. Just because you know how to work your water heater doesn’t mean you know how to fix it. There are faulty wiring’s and fire hazards involved.
When your hot water heater is leaking, get help immediately. These trained individuals are equipped with the right tools and protection. The last thing you want is for things to escalate and dangerous levels. Yes, you may have to shell out money for their services, but how much do you value your life. Think about it: the penny that you spend today is worth the hundreds of dollars that could spend tomorrow.

Experts cannot stress enough just how dangerous leaks can be. Many have paid a large price for their carelessness. Water heater technicians are there for a reason. They’ve been trained to deal with problems accordingly. They’ll know what to do and what to look for the moment they see your water heater.

If you still don’t believe the facts presented, here are some of the perils you expose yourself to if you try to handle the repairs on your own:

1. Fire – The puddles of water could reach open wires and cause sparks. The electrical conduits weren’t meant to get wet. The sparks could worsen and burn the materials around it until it spreads.
2. Electrocution – The word electrical conduits should alarm you. Aside from possible fires, you could get yourself jolted with thousands of volts of electricity. So, stay away from puddles of water. If you can reach your circuit breaker and switch off all power, do this and wait for the expert to arrive.
3. Toxins – Leaks mean that your pipes and your tank are susceptible to outside particles entering them. These particles can be toxic. The moment you see that the water coming out of the faucet and shower is slightly clouded or dirty, then know that there’s a leak somewhere and that the sediments could cause skin allergies. The only way to get rid of the problem is to clean the tank and repair the leak.
4. Molds – When puddles of water aren’t cleaned immediately, these could eventually seep through materials and destroy them. Molds are highly noxious when you breathe these. This could cause a variety of respiratory problems. Aside from wiping the soaked materials and drying them properly, address the leaks so that you don’t have to spend a good portion of your time constantly cleaning them.
5. Higher Bills – Your water heater works extra hard when sediments build up inside the tank, which means that it needs to use more energy. The extra pressure requires more power supply and it only increases if you don’t do anything about it. You’ll end up broke with no hot water to speak of.

Take leaks seriously and call for repairs. You’ll enjoy the long-term benefits of your water heater if you take immediate action. Stop your water heater from leaking and visit http://waterheaterrepairfortcollins.com/water-heater-leaking to learn more effective hot water repair tips to prevent further leaking problems.

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Water Heater Repair Specialist has techs available 7 days a week!

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Professionals and highly trained technicians here at water heater repair Loveland will make sure you have hot water when you need it. If your hot water heater is broken or is not working 100%, call our reliable plumbers in Loveland immediately and we’ll diagnose the problem, let you know what your options are, and give you an outlined cost estimate before fixing the problem.

What are the signs? There are signs and symptoms that tell you whether your water heater needs a tankless unit replacement. These are obvious signs but often overlooked or are not given attention to until it’s too late. Be proactive. Check your heating system and plumbing connections to make sure you and your family do not go bathing on cold water. Here are some of the tell-tale signs.

Heating system is over 10 years old
Water heater is leaking
Noisy tank
Discoloration of water
Foul odor
Rusted or loose bolts and screws
Soft or spongy floors
Not delivering hot water!
Those are just few of the symptoms that tell you water heater replacement may be needed. If you are experiencing any of the problems listed above, call our expert plumbers in Loveland for a quick diagnosis and guaranteed plumbing services.
Water Heater Leaking – Diagnosing Problems
Water Heater Replacement

We rarely think of our tank-style unit until we get hit by ice cold water during the morning shower. It’s all comfortable until that day comes. Though we advise to always call the plumbing professionals for these types of issues, there are some things that you can do that might fix problem.
Fails to deliver sufficient hot water or no hot water at all – check to see if the pilot light has gone out. If it did, re-light it. Another reason is maybe the thermostat is set too low. Make some adjustments and see what happens. Do not hesitate to contact a specialist for professional plumbing services.

Fails to deliver enough hot water – This could be mean a bigger problem that you really can’t fix yourself but check for leakage from pipes under the hot water heater, leakage from the tank, or if you’re hearing unusual noises from the tank, that could be sediments that accumulated overtime.

Soft Spongy Floor or Water near the Heater- The obvious conclusion is that the water tank may be leaking but it could also be a loose valve or a leaky pipe so it is recommended to do a little investigation. If it is a loose valve, you can simply tighten it. If the leaks persist, call a specialist immediately.

Water Heater Maintenance Tips
Flush the tank to remove sediment buildup
Assess the relief valve operation
Thoroughly examine for leaks
Examine the sacrificial anode rod
Install a drip pan
Install an insulation blanket or jacket
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Water Heater Installation

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Ask us about our water heater repair program which will save you hundreds of dollars in maintenance and repair costs.

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When it comes to your drains, prevention is the best policy for dealing with clogs and back-ups. While we are happy to come take care of any plumbing issues you may have, we at 24 Hour Express want you to know how to keep your drains clean.

In the kitchen, keep grease, coffee grounds and other debris out of your drain. Grounds should be disposed of in the garbage or composted. Poor your grease into a recycled container and toss it into the trash when it’s full. In the bathroom use a screen over your drain that will help keep hair and soap scum out of the drain. After each use, be sure to run your hot water to help flush your drain.

Regular cleaning will also help keep your drains free of clogs. This does not mean you have to resort to harsh chemicals either. Vinegar and baking soda are inexpensive, non-toxic and as an added bonus they will also keep your drain odor free. For a quick cleaning, toss a bit of baking soda in your drain and run the hot water. You can also pour a cup of vinegar in your drain, let it sit for a minute and then run the hot water. For a really deep clean you can pour vinegar, baking soda and a little salt into your drain, let it sit for a minute and follow it with boiling water. The best time to do this is at night before bed so the solution will have time to sit and go to work.

Taking these simple, easy steps can help you prevent serious clogs and damage in the future.

When it comes to your drains, prevention is the best policy for dealing with clogs and back-ups. While we are happy to come take care of any plumbing issues you may have, we at 24 Hour Express want you to know how to keep your drains clean.

In the kitchen, keep grease, coffee grounds and other debris out of your drain. Grounds should be disposed of in the garbage or composted. Poor your grease into a recycled container and toss it into the trash when it’s full. In the bathroom use a screen over your drain that will help keep hair and soap scum out of the drain. After each use, be sure to run your hot water to help flush your drain.

Regular cleaning will also help keep your drains free of clogs. This does not mean you have to resort to harsh chemicals either. Vinegar and baking soda are inexpensive, non-toxic and as an added bonus they will also keep your drain odor free. For a quick cleaning, toss a bit of baking soda in your drain and run the hot water. You can also pour a cup of vinegar in your drain, let it sit for a minute and then run the hot water. For a really deep clean you can pour vinegar, baking soda and a little salt into your drain, let it sit for a minute and follow it with boiling water. The best time to do this is at night before bed so the solution will have time to sit and go to work.

Taking these simple, easy steps can help you prevent serious clogs and damage in the future.
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You have to face the truth that your water heater can’t last forever. All you can do is prolong its lifespan by maintaining it regularly. This process can also help keep track of your tank’s efficiency from time to time. However, when your heating system reaches the end of the road, a water heater replacement will be your only way out.

Water Heater Replacement

Search for indicators, whether your unit needs a replacement. Make sure you turn off the circuit breaker and water supply valve to avoid accidents. If you are not confident what areas to check on, seek advice from a water heater specialist for professional help.
Feel the water.
Water heaters are made to provide enough hot water for your household. Unexpected lukewarm and cold water coming right out from your faucet are indications of an old unit. Test whether your heater takes a while in heating enough water. If you used to take longer showers right before you run out of hot water, think about buying a replacement water heater.

Look for signs of water damage right below your tank.
Having water stains and puddle of water near the base of your tank are great indicators that your water heater is leaking. Once your tank corrodes, all you can do is replace your unit as soon as possible. It is important not to let rust sit in your tank for a long time to avoid flooding.

Check the quality of your water.
It is important to keep your heater’s water quality at its best. A rusty colored water is full of bacteria and harmful chemicals that can cause health problems once ingested. Water discoloration is a common problem, especially if you live within an area with hard water. If flushing and draining won’t solve the issue, buy a replacement water heater instead.

Find how old your water heater is.
Conventional water heaters are less efficient as they age. If you have been using your unit for quite some time, it might be best to replace it with a new one. There are a lot of modern heating systems out in the market and are proven to be more energy-efficient. A replacement water heater may be expensive, but think of how much it can save you on your electric bill over time.

Watch out for varying temperatures.
If you think the water is not hot enough, check your thermostat if it’s placed at the right temperature. Sometimes, adjusting the temperature can do the trick. Be careful not to set it too high though, as this can cause your unit to overheat or worse, explode. If you are blindsided by icy water, it’s probably time to replace your water heater.

Check if your water smells bad.
Nobody wants to smell like rotten eggs first thing in the morning. Your heating system can produce smelly water if the

Water Heater Replacement

minerals inside your tank develop. You can use a water softener or filter to improve your water quality. Draining and flushing can also help your tank to remove the remaining sediment. If it doesn’t work, consult a specialist to help you fix the problem.
Replacement water heaters can be very expensive compared to simple system repairs. However, you must realize that modern water heaters nowadays are more cost-efficient and have a high heating capacity than your old unit. Always ask help from a specialist in water heater repair Fort Collins CO when it’s time for a replacement water heater. This is to ensure your next heating system will be perfect for your family.

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Water Heater Repair Chicago

Waking up to a shower that tells you you’re going to need water heater repair in Chicago is the worst. We tend to take our hot water for granted until it’s not there. Because of this, most homeowner’s don’t know who to turn to when they need to get their water heater replaced or repaired.

Most will turn to the phone book or ask a friend for a recommendation. Ads in the phonebook don’t help you evaluate a company before hiring them and your friends are probably just as confused about who to call as you are. That’s why this guide was created.

Take the time to look through this site to learn:

Whether or not a new water heater is worth the money
How to determine the best size for your water heater
If you can fix your water heater on your own
Whether or not a plumber is your best option for water heater repair in Chicago
How a water heater is fixed
How to find and evaluate the right plumber for the job
Of course, you may be in need of emergency water heater repair, and might not have enough time to read the entire site. Take a few minutes to read this page, as it will provide you with some basic information that you’ll need to provide to your plumber to help make his visit fast and efficient.

What Causes Water Heaters to Fail?

Having some idea about what caused your water heater to fail can help you communicate with the plumber providing your water heater repair in Chicago, Il. Some of these things may seem completely foreign to you, but don’t worry. Most of it will make perfect sense.

Corrosion can cause your water heater to leak or experience electrical failures. Checking the anode rod every year can help to prevent this. The sacrificial anode rod corrodes so that the tank doesn’t. Once it’s completely corroded it needs to be replaced.

Sediment build up can cause a tank to fail, too. As the water is heated the minerals are released. They form solids that collect at the bottom of the tank. It can reduce the efficiency and cause the glass lining steel bottom to fail. Regularly draining your water heater can prevent these types of failures.

High temperature settingscan cause the unit to fail, too. For each 20 degrees of heat there is a doubling of the chemical reactions that cause the tank or anode rod to corrode. By setting a reasonable temperature you can prolong the life of your water heater.

Soft waterincreases the reaction speeds of the chemical processes that lead to corrosion. A plumber can help you address this situation, and frequently replacing your anode rod can help to prolong the life of your tank, too.

In all of these situations it’s clear that a bit of preventative maintenance and fine tuning can help eliminate the need for emergency repairs. By contacting a plumber that provides water heater repair in Chicago right now you can have your issues repaired and schedule your first regular maintenance visit.

It’s typically recommended that you have two visits per year if you have hard water, and three to four per year if you have soft water.

What’s the difference between electric and gas water heater repair in Chicago?

An electric heater relies on two electrical heating elements to heat the water inside of your tank. These elements are typically covered by a water proof protective material to prevent them from shorting. One element is located at the top of the tank, while the other is located at the bottom. If one or both of these elements fail the tank may not be able to adequately heat the water.

In a gas water heater there is a pilot light, burner, and chimney system. The gas line that is fed to the burner is lit by the pilot light. The flame generated causes hot air to rise through the chimney inside of the water tank. This hot air causes the water to heat. The thick casing inside the water heater helps to retain the heat and reduce energy costs with both gas and electric water heaters.

Are there any risks with doing your own gas water heater repair in Chicago?

There are two major risks with handling your own gas water heater repair in Chicago. The first is that you may be burned by the hot water still inside the tank if it hasn’t had adequate time to cool. Because of the insulation in these tanks it can take 24 to 48 hours for the liquid to return to completely normal temperatures.

The second issue is that of having too much natural gas filling the area where your hot water heater is located. It is always possible that a gas explosion could take place. Make sure that you, or the professional providing your services, shuts off the gas line before working on the heater.

If you’re not sure how to do this, or how to bleed the hot water out of your tank safely, it’s best to contact a professional plumber.

Are there any risks with doing your own electric water heater repair in Chicago?

As was the case with gas water heaters, there is a chance that you could be burned by the hot water stored in the tank. Unless you know how to safely bleed the hot water from the tank you should wait for 24 to 48 hours before trying to work on your water heater.

A larger concern, though, is the risk of electrical shock. Injuries can be serious and sometimes fatal. Be sure to disconnect the water heater from the electrical source before performing any work. If you’re not sure how to do this it is best that you leave the water heater repair in Chicago to a professional. It’s not worth risking your life to save a couple of dollars.

Finding the Right Person for Your Water Heater Repairs

Of course, when you found out your hot water heater wasn’t working you realized you had to get it fixed immediately. Instead of rushing and hiring just any random company take a few minutes to evaluate their services before you commit to working with them.

Take a look at their website and see if they provide any testimonials from their clients. Find out if they list their prices for both routine preventative maintenance and emergency services. Give them a call and see if they answer the phone politely or if they leave your call go to an answering service.

Just because you’re in a pinch doesn’t mean that you should accept the services of a company that doesn’t focus on customer service. After all, you now realize the need for preventative plumbing maintenance to avoid these types of issues. You’ll be working with this company often.

Make sure that you ask any questions you have before the technician is dispatched to your home. If you need evening or weekend service, be sure to clarify any additional charges. Taking your time to gain any clarification about the services provided will help you have the best possible experience with water heater repair in Chicago.
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No Hot Water
If your hot water is not producing hot water at all, the problem depends on whether you have an electric or gas heater. With gas water heaters, this problem usually happens when the pilot light goes out or there is a malfunctioning part that must be replaced.

With electric heaters, the breaker may have tripped or the thermostat has gone bad. The thermostat signals to your water heater to turn on, and it may be to blame if your water heater suddenly stops producing hot water.

Strange Noises
If your water heater is making strange noises, the problem is most likely an accumulation of sediment. Our plumbing technicians at Option One Plumbing in Chula Vista, CA can repair this problem by draining and cleaning your water heater tank.

Leaking Pipes or Openings
Your water heater may develop leaks either at the pipes leading into the appliance or at one of several openings, such as the drain valve or gas control valve. Water heaters can even develop leaks from the top. Most of these leaks are caused by a fitting or plumbing component malfunctioning. These leaks can be repaired in most cases by our plumbing specialists at Option One Plumbing in Chula Vista, CA.

While many issues can be fixed, not all water heater problems can be repaired and sometimes it is necessary to install a new water heater. These issues may require complete replacement, or they may be situations in which our technicians will recommend a new water heater instead of additional repairs.

Not Enough Hot Water
There are several issues that may lead to this problem, some of which may be repaired. If your water heater is getting older and near the end of its life, it will produce less hot water. If your hot water heater is more than 10 years old, Option One Plumbing in Chula Vista, CA will recommend replacing the tank, as this will likely be the only way to restore hot water to your home.

Leaking Tank
If your water heater is leaking, the first step is to locate the source of the leak. If it is the tank itself that is leaking and not a port or the pipes your water heater must be replaced. Water heater tanks cannot be repaired. If you see standing water around your water heater, contact Option One Plumbing in Chula Vista, CA as soon as possible to prevent flooding, as it is just a matter of time before water begins to pour from your tank.

Inadequately Sized Water Heater
It is not uncommon for homeowners to believe they have a malfunctioning water heater that needs to be repaired, only to discover the problem is the size of the water heater itself. If hot water runs out too soon, your water heater may not be sized correctly for the size of your household or the house itself. Our Option One Plumbing water heater experts in Chula Vista, CA will help you determine the right size water heater for your home that will keep up with your household demands for hot water while operating more efficiently.

Water Heater Issues? Contact Us!
If you are experiencing any of the above water heater issues and you are still not sure if a repair is possible or you need to replace your water heater, contact Option One Plumbing today! Our technicians will give you a free estimate and discuss your best options.
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Water Heater Maintenance

Since your water heater can’t last a lifetime, all you can do is prolong its lifespan. You can do this by regularly maintaining your heating system. If you want to sustain your heater’s efficiency, have it inspected in a semi-annual basis.

If maintained properly, water heaters can last up to thirteen years. However, always make sure your circuit breaker or gas supply is turned off while checking your unit. To avoid serious accidents, let everyone know not to switch on the power during the maintenance period. Also close your cold-water supply valve to stop water from getting into your tank.

Drain and Flush.
This is an important step that should never be ignored when in comes to water heater maintenance. Hard water mineral deposits can sit inside your tank for a long time. When neglected, these sediments can cause your unit to rust. Prevent this from happening by draining and flushing the tank. Start draining by attaching a hose to the valve, placing the other end to a floor drain, gutter or large tub. Open the drain valve and let the water flow until the tank is empty. Remove the hose and place a bucket under the valve. Open your water-supply valve to flush the remaining sediments out. Once the water runs clear, close your drain valve and refill.

Tighten Loose Pipes.
Check your pipes regularly for possible leaks. Do not let rust stains develop before you tighten the fittings. Simply use a wrench to tighten loose connections or replace the pipes if severely damaged.

Anode Rod Checking.
Maintaining the quality of your water depends upon the state of your anode rod. This is set up in every water heater to absorb all the minerals, protecting your tank from corroding. It is normal for an anode rod to deteriorate; that is why you have to check it from time to time. Replace your anode rod as soon as you find metal wires around it.

T&P Valve Testing.
This valve is a safety feature that prevents your tank from overheating. Excessive pressure can cause your tank to blow up. Test it by lifting the lever up to release water. Allow it to snap back to stop water from flowing out. If water is still dripping, you may have a faulty T&P valve. Replace this valve immediately and do not delay.

Water Heater Maintenance

Check your Drain Valve.
Just like your pipe fittings, drain valve can also loosen up due to wear and tear. Tighten the valve and its screws or re-install it by wrapping a Teflon tape around the threading. Ask a specialist to install the valve properly.

Performing water heater maintenance will be easy if you contact a professional in Durham water heater repair immediately. Now you can sit back and relax knowing your water heater is handled by a specialist.

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Water Heater Leaking

It can be irritating to mop your floor daily if you find your water heater leaking. Stop this from happening by finding the cause of the leaks immediately. Your water heater tank is made having an inner tank, insulation in the middle and a painted outer tank. If there are no leaks coming from the pipes and valves, there may be holes in your tank. These holes can be the reason why your water heater is leaking from the bottom. Getting help from water heater specialists is a good start. They have more experience in dealing with water heater repairs than you do.
Water Heater Leaking Troubleshooting
Leaking can decrease your water heater’s efficiency, causing your energy bill to soar. Keep this from happening by finding the cause of the leaks beforehand. You might want to check different areas where leaks can occur. Doing regular maintenance also helps in extending your unit’s lifespan.

Checking the leak source.
If you continue getting cold-water leaks, you probably have a faulty intake. This is very simple to fix since you can just get it replaced. However, hot-water leaks can indicate a significant water heater problem. You may need to get a new unit since your old heater has already rusted away.

Drain Valve Tightening.
Having a loose drain valve can easily lead to your water to leak. It is essential to deal this matter right away to avoid further damage. Leaks will be obvious if you see drips of water around it. Stop your water heater from leaking by tightening the drain valve using a wrench. Take care not to over tighten the valve as this can damage your unit. If the leak persists, you should get help from a specialist.

Releasing Pressure from the tank.
Sometimes, water heater leaks are the result of extreme pressure inside your tank. This is very easy to repair since all you need to do is open the drain valve for a few seconds. Make sure your water supply is turned off to prevent water from entering. Hearing the sound of water entering the pipes is a good indication of successfully releasing pressure. You can now close the drain valve and open your water supply.

Water Heater Leaking

Drain valve replacement.
There are times when tightening the drain valve isn’t enough to stop water from leaking. At this point, get it replaced as soon as possible. Keep in mind that you can only change the valve once there is no water left inside your tank. After draining, use a Teflon tape around its threading and connect the new valve. Tighten it well to secure it into place. Leaks should have stopped after the replacement.
If the problem gets too difficult to deal with, always contact a specialist for help. Leaving it in the hands of a professional will reduce the chances of accidents from happening. Paying a small price for your family’s safety is definitely worth it.

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Electric Water Heater Repair

The newer electric water heaters have been designed to make troubleshooting and repair easier. Nonetheless, bigger problems need to be dealt with by an expert. You may just expose yourself to a variety of dangers if you’re unfamiliar with what to do.

Water heaters break down for several reasons. When it comes to electric water heater repair, there are things you need to check and access. Ask the repairman what he’ll do and see to it that you get some advice on proper care and maintenance. That way, you’ll always have your supply of hot water and avoid being inconvenienced. You may not realize just how crucial your heater is until you’ve ran out of hot water. You can’t shower comfortably and do your laundry efficiently. You may even have to resort to manually heating the water on the stove, and this takes a lot of time. If you’re busy, you’ll definitely have to put off the task until the weekend comes. Can you really wait that long? If not, then get help immediately and avoid further problems from happening.

As soon as you notice problems with your water heater, always follow the safety-first principle. Then, take note of the following causes and tips:

Problem 1: When You Don’t Get Hot Water
This means that your heater doesn’t have power. If you know where your water heater is located, check the fuses and the circuit breaker. The manual should have the blueprint for the wiring and the instructions of what to do. This is a rather complicated task for many. Technicians will be able to check for the connections and wiring found at the terminal. There may be oxidation from the wiring, so they can tighten it. Other causes could be sediment buildup, dry-firing, and excess voltage. If these happen, you may need to have the element replaced. You can also check the thermostat because this could be the cause. Nonetheless, always know the components and the parameters so that you buy the proper parts.

Problem 2: When You Don’t Have Enough Hot Water
The heater could be too small for the size of your family. Hence, you need to check the dimensions of your water heater and buy a new one that’s more fitting. If this isn’t the problem you may have to have the faucets and drain repaired because of sediment buildup. Check the thermostat as well. Insulate the pipes to prevent further heat loss. Another possible cause could be the heating element that’s located at the bottom of the tank. The circuit could be grounded and could need replacing.

Problem 3: When Hot Water Is Slow to Recover
Common causes are buildup, a faulty thermostat, or faulty dip tube. The plumber may use a water softener for the sediments or he may need to clean the elements. Don’t do these on your own because you may damage the copper sheath.

Problem 4: When Your Electric Bill is Too High
Your thermostat is definitely set too or your pipes aren’t properly insulated. Make the proper adjustments based on the instructions found on the manual and you can expect improvements in your next energy bill.

Problem 5: When Your Water Heater is Too Noisy
Clean the heater and call the company to order the part that’s been damaged by the buildup. Know the model and serial numbers so you purchase the right one.

To extend the life of your water heater, click here to learn more tips on proper maintenance of water heaters.

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aeration 1.20

Applications> Municipal Sewerage

With over 549 operational municipal sewage plants utilizing the Kubota flat sheet submerged membrane process around the world, MBR Wastewater Treatment Ltd. is expertly placed to assist with your requirements.

Case Studies
Moneyreagh, Northern Ireland
Narraghmore, Ireland
Picnic Bay, Australia
Porlock, England
Skipsea, England
Swanage, England

The development of MBR Wastewater Treatment’s submerged membrane bioreactor technology was the result of a Japanese Government initiative to produce compact high quality effluent treatment plants. Since producing the first pilot plant using this technology in 1989, and the first commercial plant in 1991, over 900 plants have been installed worldwide. These treat a wide range of effluents, the principal application being sewage and sludge liquors, but also including industrial wastewater, manufacturing and processing wastewater, and graywater recycling for a wide range of re-use purposes. In the UK, a pilot trial has been run at Kingston Seymour WwTW since 1995. A full-scale plant has been operating successfully at Porlock WwTW since February 1998, treating a population waste of approximately 3,800 persons. Swanage WwTW has been operating since September 2000 treating a population waste of approximately 28,000 persons.

The process employs simple flat sheet membrane panels housed in GRP units and aerated by a coarse bubble system below each unit. A series of these membranes are submerged within an activated sludge treatment tank. The aeration necessary for treatment of the liquors also generates an upward cross-flow over the membranes; this is essential to keep fouling of the filtration surface to a minimum. An advantage of this design is that the membrane panels are securely retained and do not touch or abrade each other, while the units also act as a flume to ensure effective tank mixing and even distribution of the biomass.

The membrane panels are manufactured with a pore size in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 microns which in operation becomes covered by a dynamic layer of protein and cellular material. This further enhances the effectiveness of this filtration performance by providing an effective pore size of less than 0.01 microns, which is in the ultra-filtration range.

Our membrane bioreactor treatment produces a high quality disinfected effluent. The raw sewage generally only requires screening and de-gritting prior to entering the membrane bioreactor tank. The process requires no primary or secondary settlement stages and no additional tertiary treatment or UV stages to achieve this very high disinfection quality typically better than 5:5:5 BOD:Suspended Solids:Ammonia.

MBR Wastewater Treatment Ltd.’s Membrane Bioreactor Technology has a number of inherent advantages. The system does not require flocs to be formed to remove the solids by settlement and therefore the biomass can operate at very high levels of MLSS, generally in the order of 12,000-18,000 mg/l, and as high as 22,000 mg/l. This high concentration enables a low tank volume and a long sludge age to be utilized, which substantially reduces sludge production.

The well aerated high density biomass also absorbs odors and maintains quality even after receiving short term loading peaks.

The hydraulic flow determines the required number of membrane units. Each membrane unit may contain up to 200 flat sheet membrane panels housed within a rectangular box, together with an integral aeration system in the bottom section of the unit. Treated effluent is removed from the membrane units using gravity head (typically 1 – 1.2 m), or a pumped suction operation can be utilized.

Operation and Maintenance
Operating experience of the pilot and main treatment plants has consistently shown an effluent of high quality, that has little dependence on variations in feed strength and is fully disinfected with bacteria and viruses reduced to below the EU limits for swimming water or recreational water standards.

By minimizing the effect of fouling through controlled cross flow velocities over the membrane surface cleaning is required typically only twice per year using a backwash of high dilution dilute sodium hypochlorite solution into each membrane unit.

The process is designed to run without supervision and by using high quality plastics and stainless steel, the membrane panels and units have long life expectancies in the most part beyond 10 years.

Characteristics of the available wastewater treatment technologies
MBR
Activated sludge
Biofilter
RBC
BAF/ SAF

Fast installation

Small footprint

Ease of operation

Low maintenance

No odor/vector attraction

High biomass concentration

High loading rates

Tolerates shock loading

High & consistent effluent quality

Disinfection without UV/chemicals

Effluent suitable for agricultural or graywater reuse

Effluent suitable for discharge to sensitive waters

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January 18, 2012 by admin

Nowadays, our environment is facing growing pressures than before, various kinds of environment problems are emerging, which greatly hinder our social and economic development, one of which is the water pollution problem, has already becoming a crucial problem that need us to solve in no time. So there is in a great need of some counterplans to coop with these problems, among these problems, the wastewater is the most serious one, so our societies need to establish more and more wastewater treatment plants and then first of all we need to make some wastewater treatment plant designs.
When making the wastewater treatment plant design, we should consider some issues such as what kind of equipments do we need when build wastewater treatment plant.
As far as I know, there is a brand called Filtralite, which is suitable for different wastewater treatment plant design, both for municipal and industrial effluents, they have different kinds of equipments for our wastewater treatment plant design such as: the Biological treatment, Tertiary filtration, Odour treatment as well as the Effluent water treatment and so on.
I have made some researches on this brand’s equipments when construct wastewater treatment plant design, I found that this brand’s productions has large pore volumes and surface areas which could make it an ideal media for biological treatment of wastewater. Also I found that when making the wastewater treatment plant design, the Biofilm processes are excellent for treating water containing nitrogen, BOD etc. as there are many years of experience and evidence have shown that this brand’s products are the perfect media for building up some wastewater treatment plant design, and put these wastewater treatment plant designs into real practice in the future.
Also during the survey of assuming a wastewater treatment plant design, I know that If extra strict outlet levels are required, tertiary filters are used. Also this brand’s products have the ideal properties for use in mono- or multi media tertiary filters. If we adopt this kind of equipment in our wastewater treatment plant design, the large porosity of the grains gives low head loss and high storage capacity for suspended solids, resulting in long filter runs and low operational costs.
But to put a wastewater treatment plant design into practice is not that easy, first we need to get permissions from local government, then we must have enough space for build up this high wastewater treatment plant according to the wastewater treatment plant design, and then the most difficult parts of fulfilling the wastewater treatment plant design is the high requirement of technology, as well as enough money either donated by government founds or collecting from the local industries, these things are just some basic factors that we need to take into account when carrying out the wastewater treatment plant design, there are far more difficulties in the future when we fulfill the wastewater treatment plant design.

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January 18, 2012 by admin

I think everyone has learnt the knowledge in your primary school, that nature has an amazing ability to cope with small amounts of water wastes and pollution, but it would be overwhelmed if we didn’t treat the billions of gallons of wastewater and sewage produced every day before releasing it back to the environment. That’s why our water resources are seriously polluted and there is no way to control it unless to take some measures for example, to build up a wastewater treatment plant, wastewater treatment plants could help us reduce pollutants in wastewater to a level nature can handle, and control the tense situation.
Before we talk about the wastewater treatment plant let together know something about the wastewater, the wastewater is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food scraps, oils, soaps and chemicals. In homes, this includes water from sinks, showers, bathtubs, toilets, washing machines and dishwashers. Businesses and industries also contribute their share of used water that must be cleaned. So you see, there are nearly hundreds of wastewater, when designing the wastewater treatment plant as well kinds of professional wastewater treatment plant equipments we must take all these things into consideration.
Do you guys know there need some special permissions when build a wastewater treatment plant? Yes, according to the professional regulation in the world, the new EPP2 regulations we know that any plants, if the local government or some private companies, factories want to build a wastewater treatment plant, they must get some permission which is to pass with the EN12566-3 2005 Certification that are allowed to register for the Discharge Permit or Exemption now required by the Environment Agency.
This step is the primary first one in the whole process of building up a comprehensive wastewater treatment plant, then there are still numerable problems people should to consider.
Another question, What’s the aim of building a wastewater treatment plant?
Well, I have concluded the aims of building a wastewater treatment plant in sentence, The major aim of setting up a wastewater treatment plant is to remove as much of the suspended solids as possible before the remaining water, called effluent, is discharged back to the environment. As solid material decays, it uses up oxygen, which is needed by the plants and animals living in the water.
According to our current processing ability, a medium-sized wastewater treatment plant could remove about 60 percent of suspended solids from wastewater. This treatment also involves aerating the wastewater, to put oxygen back in. if there is dual processing procedure in our wastewater treatment plant, the secondary treatment removes more than 90 percent of suspended solids.
So to conclude in one word, in order to give our offspring a continuing and sustainable earth and developing space, please take care of everything we get from our nature, and vigorously carrying out the plans of building wastewater treatment plants.

Posted in wastewater treatment plant | Tagged wastewater treatment plant | 1 Comment »
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Alternative Power Source Benefits and drawbacks

Due to improving global energy intake and the likely exhaustion of the globe’s non-renewable power source, means of exploring and making use of alternate power sources are being embarked on. Utilizing alternate power source could be both helpful and difficult. Let us check out the various benefits and drawbacks of different electricity source.

A major advantage of sustainable power is that it is eco-friendly as a result it is lasting and will never go out. A lot more importantly renewable resource produces little or no waste products that could contaminate or has harmful effects on the environment.

Some countries making use of renewable resource as an additional source of power are additionally revealing some economic advantages specifically in lots of local locations. Many of their tasks are found away from the urban centers and resources cities. They had the ability to enhance the usage of local services in addition to tourism.

General disadvantage of using renewable resource is that it is challenging to produce big quantities of power the same as that of traditional nonrenewable fuel sources. An additional usual problem among different power sources is the reliability of the electricity supply. Considering that it is normally created, renewable resource supply relies on the climate.

One more downside or disadvantage of alternate energy source is that it is relatively much more expensive to establish the tools essential for generating the electricity.

Here are the a number of benefits and downsides of different power source.

• Solar energy- the sun is a wonderful source of energy given that it is free and is efficient. It is feasible to maximize the energy offered by the sunlight to replace conventional energy. But there are limits, like areas at high latitude and areas with constant rains are spots not qualified of creating efficient solar electricity.

• Wind power- wind is also an effective electrical energy source. It is feasible that wind electricity can switch out up to 20 percent of the total electric consumption in the future. It is additionally a quite environment friendly source of electricity because there are no dangerous gases generated while changing the electricity. Place is a vital consider making use of wind energy, higher latitudes and coastline lines excel places to establish windmills. A relatively big land location is additionally had to install ample number of windmills.

• Hydroelectric and tidal electricity- both of these power originated from water. With hydroelectric power it is primarily sourced from dams. Tidal energy, on the various other hand, utilizes the natural tides of the ocean. Production of energy from water is an additional clean method of producing energy. Nonetheless there are several disadvantages. Placing up stream dams as sources of hydroelectric energy is very pricey, while tidal electricity source depends a lot on the sea. Considering that seas has a tendency to unpredictable there are simply 9 areas worldwide that agree with for this kind of electricity source. And tidal electricity nuclear power plant are likewise mentioned to offer unfavorable impacts on the migratory birds and the fishes.

• Biomass- biomass includes fermented pet waste, agricultural plants, grains and various other natural products. It could be used to create a liquor and additionally switch out gasoline requirements. It takes full advantage of waste products as a different energy source. A drawback, it that it still creates greenhouse gas.

Alternative power sources although it is sustainable likewise present some negative aspects. Yet its unfavourable effects are fairly smaller than the harmful effects of traditional fossil fuels. The search for a cost-effective and ecological friendly choice energy source does not stop on the most up to date discovery.

Waste Water Solutions

aeration

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Agricultural wastewater treatment relates to the treatment of wastewaters produced in the course of agricultural activities. Agriculture is a highly intensified industry in many parts of the world, producing a range of wastewaters requiring a variety treatment technologies and management practices
Sediment runoff
HIghly erodible soils on a farm in Iowa
Soil washed off fields is the largest source of agricultural pollution in the United States. Excess sediment causes high levels of turbidity in water bodies, which can inhibit growth of aquatic plants, clog fish gills and smother animal larvae.[1]
Farmers may utilize erosion controls to reduce runoff flows and retain soil on their fields. Common techniques include:
• contour plowing
• crop mulching
• crop rotation
• planting perennial crops
• installing riparian buffers.

Nutrient runoff
Manure spreader
Nitrogen and phosphorus are key pollutants found in runoff, and they are applied to farmland in several ways:
• commercial fertilizer
• animal manure
• municipal or industrial wastewater (effluent) or sludge.
These chemicals may also enter runoff from crop residues, irrigation water, wildlife, and atmospheric deposition.
Farmers can develop and implement nutrient management plans to mitigate impacts on water quality:
• map and document fields, crop types, soil types, water bodies
• develop realistic crop yield projections
• conduct soil tests and nutrient analyses of manures and/or sludges applied
• identify other significant nutrient sources (e.g. irrigation water)
• evaluate significant field features such as highly erodible soils, subsurface drains, and shallow aquifers
• apply fertilizers, manures, and/or sludges based on realistic yield goals and using precision agriculture techniques.
Pesticides
Aerial application (crop dusting) of pesticides over a soybean field in the U.S.
Pesticides are widely used by farmers to control plant pests and enhance production, but chemical pesticides can also cause water quality problems. Pesticides may appear in surface water due to:
• direct application (e.g. aerial spraying or broadcasting over water bodies)
• runoff during rain storms
• aerial drift (from adjacent fields).
Some pesticides have also been detected in groundwater.[2]:p.2-24
Farmers may use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques (which can include biological pest control) to maintain control over pests, reduce reliance on chemical pesticides, and protect water quality.
There are few safe ways of disposing of pesticide surpluses other than through containment in well managed landfills or by incineration. In some parts of the world, spraying on land is a permitted method of disposal.
Point source pollution
Farms with large livestock and poultry operations, such as factory farms, can be a major source of point source wastewater. In the United States these facilities are called concentrated animal feeding operations or confined animal feeding operations and are being subject to increasing government regulation.
Animal wastes
Confined Animal Feeding Operation in the United States
The constituents of animal wastewater typically contain
• Strong organic content—much stronger than human sewage
• High solids concentration
• High nitrate and phosphorus content
• Antibiotics
• Synthetic hormones
• Often high concentrations of parasites and their eggs
• Spore of cryptosporidum – a bacterium resistant to drinking water treatment processes
• Spore of giardia
• Human pathogenic bacteria such as Brucella and Salmonella
Animal wastes from cattle can be as produced as solid or semisolid manure or as a liquid slurry. The production of slurry is especially common in housed dairy cattle.
Treatment
Whilst solid manure heaps outdoors can give rise to polluting wastewaters from runoff, this type of waste is usually relatively easy to treat by containment and/or covering of the heap.
Animal slurries require special handling and are usually treated by containment in lagoons before disposal by spray or trickle application to grassland. Constructed wetlands are sometimes used to facilitate treatment of animal wastes, as are anaerobic lagoons. Excessive application or application to sodden land or insufficient land area can result in direct runoff to watercourses with the potential for causing severe pollution. Application of slurries to land overlying aquifers can result in direct contamination or, more commonly, elevation of nitrogen levels as nitrite or nitrate.
The disposal of any wastewater containing animal waste upstream of a drinking water intake can pose serious health problems to those drinking the water because of the highly resistant spores present in many animals that are capable of causing disabling in humans. This risk exists even for very low level seepage via shallow surface drains or from rainfall run-off.
Some animal slurries are treated by mixing with straws and composted at high temperature to produce a bacteriologically sterile and friable manure for soil
Piggery waste
Hog confinement barn or piggery
Piggery waste is comparable to other animal wastes except that many piggery wastes contain elevated levels of copper that can be toxic in the natural environment. Ascarid worms and their eggs are also common and can infect humans if wastewater treatment is ineffective.
Treatment
As for general animal waste although the liquid fraction of the waste is frequently separated off and re-used in the piggery to avoid the prohibitively expensive costs of disposing of a copper rich liquor.
Silage liquor
Fresh or wilted grass or other green crops can be made into the semi fermented product called silage which can be stored and used as winter forage for cattle and sheep. The production of silage often involves the use of an acid conditioner such as sulfuric acid or formic acid. The process of silage making frequently produces a yellow-brown strongly smelling liquid which is very rich in simple sugars, alcohol, short-chain organic acids and silage conditioner. This liquor is one of the most polluting organic substances known. The volume of silage liquor produced is generally in proportion to the moisture content of the ensiled material.
Treatment
Silage liquor is best treated through prevention by wilting crops well before silage making. Any silage liquor that is produced can be used as part of the food for pigs. The most effective treatment is by containment in a slurry lagoon and subsequently spread on land following substantial dilution with slurry. Containment of silage liquor on its own can cause structural problems in concrete pits because of the acidic nature of silage liquor.
Milking parlour (dairy farming) wastes
Although milk has a deserved reputation as an important and valuable food product, its presence in wastewaters is highly polluting because of its organic strength, which can lead to very rapid de-oxygenation of receiving waters. Milking parlour wastes also contain large volumes of wash-down water, some animal waste together with cleaning and disinfection chemicals.
Treatment
Milking parlour waste are often treated in admixture with human sewage in a local sewage treatment plant. This ensures that disinfectants and cleaning agents are sufficiently diluted and amenable to treatment. Running milking wastewaters into a farm slurry lagoon is a possible option although this tends to consume lagoon capacity very quickly. Land spreading is also a treatment option. See also Industrial wastewater treatment.
Slaughtering waste
Wastewater from slaughtering activities is similar to milking parlour waste (see above) although considerably stronger in its organic composition and therefore potentially much more polluting.
Treatment
As for milking parlour waste.
Vegetable washing water
Washing of vegetables produces large volumes of water contaminated by soil and vegetable pieces. Low levels of pesticides used to treat the vegetables may also be present together with moderate levels of disinfectants such as chlorine.
Treatment
Most vegetable washing waters are extensively recycled with the solids removed by settlement and filtration. The recovered soil can be returned to the land.
Fire water
Although few farms plan for fires, fires are nevertheless more common on farms than on many other industrial premises. Stores of pesticides, herbicides, fuel oil for farm machinery and fertilizers can all help promote fire and can all be present in environmentally lethal quantities in wastewater from firefighting at farms.
Treatment
All farm environmental management plans should allow for containment of substantial quantities of firewater and for its subsequent recovery and disposal by specialist disposal companies. The concentration and mixture of contaminants in fire-water make them unsuited to any treatment method available on the farm. Even land spreading has produced severe taste and odour problems for downstream water supply companies in the past.
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What is wastewater, and why treat it?

We consider wastewater treatment as water use because it is so interconnected with the other uses of water. Much of the water used by homes, industries, and businesses must be treated before it is released back to the environment.
If the term “wastewater treatment” is confusing to you, you might think of it as “sewage treatment.” Nature has an amazing ability to cope with small amounts of water wastes and pollution, but it would be overwhelmed if we didn’t treat the billions of gallons of wastewater and sewage produced every day before releasing it back to the environment. Treatment plants reduce pollutants in wastewater to a level nature can handle.
Wastewater is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food scraps, oils, soaps and chemicals. In homes, this includes water from sinks, showers, bathtubs, toilets, washing machines and dishwashers. Businesses and industries also contribute their share of used water that must be cleaned.
Wastewater also includes storm runoff. Although some people assume that the rain that runs down the street during a storm is fairly clean, it isn’t. Harmful substances that wash off roads, parking lots, and rooftops can harm our rivers and lakes.
Why Treat Wastewater?
It’s a matter of caring for our environment and for our own health. There are a lot of good reasons why keeping our water clean are an important priority:
Fisheries
Clean water is critical to plants and animals that live in water. This is important to the fishing industry, sport fishing enthusiasts, and future generations.
Wildlife Habitats
Our rivers and ocean waters teem with life that depends on shoreline, beaches and marshes. They are critical habitats for hundreds of species of fish and other aquatic life. Migratory water birds use the areas for resting and feeding.

Recreation and Quality of Life

Water is a great playground for us all. The scenic and recreational values of our waters are reasons many people choose to live where they do. Visitors are drawn to water activities such as swimming, fishing, boating and picnicking.
Health Concerns
If it is not properly cleaned, water can carry disease. Since we live, work and play so close to water, harmful bacteria have to be removed to make water safe.
The major aim of wastewater treatment is to remove as much of the suspended solids as possible before the remaining water, called effluent, is discharged back to the environment. As solid material decays, it uses up oxygen, which is needed by the plants and animals living in the water.
“Primary treatment” removes about 60 percent of suspended solids from wastewater. This treatment also involves aerating (stirring up) the wastewater, to put oxygen back in. Secondary treatment removes more than 90 percent of suspended solids.
Why is Sewage Treatment Important?
Effective sewage treatment prevents a variety of ailments that can be spread by exposure to pathogens that can be present in untreated sewages, and thus helps prevent disease. Discharges of untreated sewage can contaminate groundwater and surface waters used for drinking, recreation, and fish and shellfish fisheries
Untreated sewage from failed conventional septic systems or sewage discharged directly into the environment can percolate into groundwater, contaminating drinking-water wells with pathogens. The discharge of untreated sewage to streams can spread disease through direct contact, making such streams unfit for forms of recreation that involve skin contact with the water such as swimming and boating. Disease can also spread by indirect (secondary) contact such as through contact with rodents or insects that received primary exposure and in turn harbor the pathogens. Discharged, untreated sewage also can damage the receiving streams’ ability to support healthy, living communities of aquatic organisms and can contaminate fisheries.

General Principles of Sewage Treatment

Raw sewage and septic wastewaters contain a variety of contaminants. Many technologies are available to render the sewage suitable for safe discharge to the environment. These include those used in the municipal treatment works that receive sewage discharged to public sewers in the nation’s developed areas; conventional on-site sewage treatment that uses a septic tank and soil absorption field commonly used in rural areas; and the alternative on-site technologies that form the focus of this publication. Most sewage treatment technologies operate by combining basic physical, chemical, and biological processes
1. Primary treatment removes solid chunks and particles from raw sewage through gravity separation and/or screening. A septic tank is the most common primary treatment device in on-site systems. In alternative systems, the septic tank is commonly outfitted with an outlet filter, to capture solid particles that are too small or too light to settle. When used with conventional septic systems, an outlet filter will extend system longevity and improve performance. The partially-treated liquid discharged from primary treatment is called primary effluent.

2. Secondary-treatment processes (also called microbial digestion) receive primary effluent. Most secondary-treatment processes move the effluent through an aeration process environment that is favorable to aerobic microorganisms, those that thrive in atmospheric oxygen (O2) environments. The following wastewater renovation processes occur during this treatment:

Pathogenic microorganism populations are reduced. The vast majority of microorganisms found in sewage thrive within the human digestive system, an environment where oxygen does not occur as O2. Consequently, these organisms are not well adapted to aerated environments. Within secondary-treatment devices, some microorganisms (including most pathogens) perish as a result of exposure to O2.

Other organisms, including predators that consume pathogens, do thrive in an aerobic environment, sustained by the rich mix of O2 with H2O, biodegradable organic compounds, and essential nutrients that comprises sewage. Where the effluent passes through secondary treatment media with small pores (such as a sand filter, or natural soils), pathogen numbers are also reduced via physical straining.

Biodegradable organic contaminants, such as dissolved organic substances, and organic particles, remaining in the effluent after primary treatment are removed.
The microorganisms in the aerated secondary-treatment medium consume and metabolize biodegradable organic compounds, deriving energy by breaking the carbon-carbon bonds and converting the organic carbon to carbon dioxide (CO2).

Small particulate contaminants are removed. Where the filtration media are comprised of mineral particles with small pores (such as a natural soil or a sand filter), particulate contaminants are removed via physical screening; biodegradable components of the particles captured in the fine pores are consumed by the resident aerobic bacteria.
The partially-treated liquid discharged from secondary treatment is called secondary effluent.

3. Advanced treatments are optional processes that may be applied to remove additional contaminants from secondary effluent prior to dispersal. Advanced treatment is usually included only in systems intended to discharge directly to the land surface, or to surface-water streams. Advanced treatment processes designed to remove additional nitrogen and phosphorous from the effluent are sometimes necessary to protect water quality in streams receiving treated effluent discharges.

4. Disinfection systems often rely on chlorination, ozonation, or ultraviolet light. Systems that discharge treated effluent where there is a potential for direct human exposure (i.e., discharge to surface waters or the soil surface) are often required to disinfect the effluent so as to eliminate potential hazards due to human exposure.
Effluent that has been disinfected, and has received advanced treatment, is called tertiary effluent.
Treated effluent must be discharged to (or dispersed in) the environment. Secondary effluent is commonly dispersed in soils below the surface, while tertiary effluent may be discharged to flowing waters (such as a surface-water stream) or on the soil surface. Surface discharge or dispersal typically requires a permit from an agency responsible for protecting surface-water quality as well as an on-site septic system permit.
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Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic. It includes physical, chemical and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce a waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste or sludge suitable for discharge or reuse back into the environment. This material is often inadvertently contaminated with many toxic organic and inorganic compounds.
Sewage is created by residences, institutions, hospitals and commercial and industrial establishments. It can be treated close to where it is created (in septic tanks, biofilters or aerobic treatment systems), or collected and transported via a network of pipes and pump stations to a municipal treatment plant (see sewerage and pipes and infrastructure). Sewage collection and treatment is typically subject to local, state and federal regulations and standards. Industrial sources of wastewater often require specialized treatment processes (see Industrial wastewater treatment).
The sewage treatment involves three stages, called primary, secondary and tertiary treatment. First, the solids are separated from the wastewater stream. Then dissolved biological matter is progressively converted into a solid mass by using indigenous, water-borne micro-organisms. Finally, the biological solids are neutralized then disposed of or re-used, and the treated water may be disinfected chemically or physically (for example by lagoons and micro-filtration). The final effluent can be discharged into a stream, river, bay, lagoon or wetland, or it can be used for the irrigation of a golf course, green way or park. If it is sufficiently clean, it can also be used for groundwater recharge or agricultural purposes.
Raw influent (sewage) includes household waste liquid from toilets, baths, showers, kitchens, sinks, and so forth that is disposed of via sewers. In many areas, sewage also includes liquid waste from industry and commerce. The separation and draining of household waste into grey water and blackwater is becoming more common in the developed world, with grey water being permitted to be used for watering plants or recycled for flushing toilets. A lot of sewage also includes some surface water from roofs or hard-standing areas. Municipal wastewater therefore includes residential, commercial, and industrial liquid waste discharges, and may include storm water runoff. Sewage systems capable of handling storm water are known as combined systems or combined sewers. Such systems are usually avoided since they complicate and thereby reduce the efficiency of sewage treatment plants owing to their seasonality. The variability in flow also leads to often larger than necessary, and subsequently more expensive, treatment facilities. In addition, heavy storms that contribute more flows than the treatment plant can handle may overwhelm the sewage treatment system, causing a spill or overflow (called a combined sewer overflow, or CSO, in the United States). It is preferable to have a separate storm drain system for storm water in areas that are developed with sewer systems.
As rainfall runs over the surface of roofs and the ground, it may pick up various contaminants including soil particles and other sediment, heavy metals, organic compounds, animal waste, and oil and grease. Some jurisdictions require storm water to receive some level of treatment before being discharged directly into waterways. Examples of treatment processes used for storm water include sedimentation basins, wetlands, buried concrete vaults with various kinds of filters, and vortex separators (to remove coarse solids).
The site where the raw wastewater is processed before it is discharged back to the environment is called a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The order and types of mechanical, chemical and biological systems that comprise the wastewater treatment plant are typically the same for most developed countries:
Mechanical treatment
Influx (Influent)
Removal of large objects
Removal of sand and grit
Pre-precipitation

Biological treatment
Oxidation bed (oxidizing bed) or aeration system
Post precipitation

Chemical treatment
this step is usually combined with settling and other processes to remove solids, such as filtration. The combination is referred to in the U.S. as physical chemical treatment.

Primary treatment removes the materials that can be easily collected from the raw wastewater and disposed of. The typical materials that are removed during primary treatment include fats, oils, and greases (also referred to as FOG), sand, gravels and rocks (also referred to as grit), larger settable solids and floating materials (such as rags and flushed feminine hygiene products). This step is done entirely with machinery.
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The purpose of tertiary treatment is to provide a final treatment stage to raise the effluent quality before it is discharged to the receiving environment (sea, river, lake, ground, etc.). More than one tertiary treatment process may be used at any treatment plant. If disinfection is practiced, it is always the final process. It is also called “effluent polishing”.

Filtration
Sand filtration removes much of the residual suspended matter. Filtration over activated carbon removes residual toxins.

Lagooning

A sewage treatment plant and lagoon in Everett, Washington.
Lagooning provides settlement and further biological improvement through storage in large man-made ponds or lagoons. These lagoons are highly aerobic and colonization by native macrophytes, especially reeds, is often encouraged. Small filter feeding invertebrates such as Daphnia and species of Rotifera greatly assist in treatment by removing fine particulates.

Constructed wetlands

Constructed wetlands include engineered reedbeds and a range of similar methodologies, all of which provide a high degree of aerobic biological improvement and can often be used instead of secondary treatment for small communities, also see phytoremediation. One example is a small reedbed used to clean the drainage from the elephants’ enclosure at Chester Zoo in England.

Nutrient removal

Wastewater may contain high levels of the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus. Excessive release to the environment can lead to a build up of nutrients, called eutrophication, which can in turn encourage the overgrowth of weeds, algae, and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). This may cause an algal bloom, a rapid growth in the population of algae. The algae numbers are unsustainable and eventually most of them die. The decomposition of the algae by bacteria uses up so much of oxygen in the water that most or all of the animals die, which creates more organic matter for the bacteria to decompose. In addition to causing deoxygenation, some algal species produce toxins that contaminate drinking water supplies. Different treatment processes are required to remove nitrogen and phosphorus.

Nitrogen removal

The removal of nitrogen is effected through the biological oxidation of nitrogen from ammonia (nitrification) to nitrate, followed by denitrification, the reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas. Nitrogen gas is released to the atmosphere and thus removed from the water.
Nitrification itself is a two-step aerobic process, each step facilitated by a different type of bacteria. The oxidation of ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2−) is most often facilitated by Nitrosomonas spp. (nitroso referring to the formation of a nitroso functional group). Nitrite oxidation to nitrate (NO3−), though traditionally believed to be facilitated by Nitrobacter spp. (nitro referring the formation of a nitro functional group), is now known to be facilitated in the environment almost exclusively by Nitrospira spp.
Denitrification requires anoxic conditions to encourage the appropriate biological communities to form. It is facilitated by a wide diversity of bacteria. Sand filters, lagooning and reed beds can all be used to reduce nitrogen, but the activated sludge process (if designed well) can do the job the most easily. Since denitrification is the reduction of nitrate to dinitrogen gas, an electron donor is needed. This can be, depending on the wastewater, organic matter (from faeces), sulfide, or an added donor like methanol.
Sometimes the conversion of toxic ammonia to nitrate alone is referred to as tertiary treatment.

Phosphorus removal

Phosphorus removal is important as it is a limiting nutrient for algae growth in many fresh water systems (for negative effects of algae see Nutrient removal). It is also particularly important for water reuse systems where high phosphorus concentrations may lead to fouling of downstream equipment such as reverse osmosis.
Phosphorus can be removed biologically in a process called enhanced biological phosphorus removal. In this process, specific bacteria, called polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), are selectively enriched and accumulate large quantities of phosphorus within their cells (up to 20% of their mass). When the biomass enriched in these bacteria is separated from the treated water, these biosolids have a high fertilizer value.
Phosphorus removal can also be achieved by chemical precipitation, usually with salts of iron (e.g. ferric chloride), aluminum (e.g. alum), or lime. This may lead to excessive sludge productions as hydroxides precipitates and the added chemicals can be expensive. Despite this, chemical phosphorus removal requires significantly smaller equipment footprint than biological removal, is easier to operate and is often more reliable than biological phosphorus removal.
Once removed, phosphorus, in the form of a phosphate rich sludge, may be land filled or, if in suitable condition, resold for use in fertilizer.

Disinfection

The purpose of disinfection in the treatment of wastewater is to substantially reduce the number of microorganisms in the water to be discharged back into the environment. The effectiveness of disinfection depends on the quality of the water being treated (e.g., cloudiness, pH, etc.), the type of disinfection being used, the disinfectant dosage (concentration and time), and other environmental variables. Cloudy water will be treated less successfully since solid matter can shield organisms, especially from ultraviolet light or if contact times are low. Generally, short contact times, low doses and high flows all militate against effective disinfection. Common methods of disinfection include ozone, chlorine, or ultraviolet light. Chloramine, which is used for drinking water, is not used in wastewater treatment because of its persistence.
Chlorination remains the most common form of wastewater disinfection in North America due to its low cost and long-term history of effectiveness. One disadvantage is that chlorination of residual organic material can generate chlorinated-organic compounds that may be carcinogenic or harmful to the environment. Residual chlorine or chloramines may also be capable of chlorinating organic material in the natural aquatic environment. Further, because residual chlorine is toxic to aquatic species, the treated effluent must also be chemically dechlorinated, adding to the complexity and cost of treatment.
Ultraviolet (UV) light can be used instead of chlorine, iodine, or other chemicals. Because no chemicals are used, the treated water has no adverse effect on organisms that later consume it, as may be the case with other methods. UV radiation causes damage to the genetic structure of bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens, making them incapable of reproduction. The key disadvantages of UV disinfection are the need for frequent lamp maintenance and replacement and the need for a highly treated effluent to ensure that the target microorganisms are not shielded from the UV radiation (i.e., any solids present in the treated effluent may protect microorganisms from the UV light). In the United Kingdom, light is becoming the most common means of disinfection because of the concerns about the impacts of chlorine in chlorinating residual organics in the wastewater and in chlorinating organics in the receiving water. Edmonton and Calgary, Alberta, Canada also use UV light for its water treatment.
Ozone O3 is generated by passing oxygen O2 through a high voltage potential resulting in a third oxygen atom becoming attached and forming O3. Ozone is very unstable and reactive and oxidizes most organic material it comes in contact with, thereby destroying many pathogenic microorganisms. Ozone is considered to be safer than chlorine because, unlike chlorine which has to be stored on site (highly poisonous in the event of an accidental release), ozone is generated onsite as needed. Ozonation also produces fewer disinfection by-products than chlorination. A disadvantage of ozone disinfection is the high cost of the ozone generation equipment and the requirements for special operators.
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Always one step ahead…
What at that time caused incredible interest and great scepticism in the branch is today, across the whole of
Europe, an established product with over 35,000 units sold, unchallenged market leader in Germany and a
wastewater treatment plant market without it can no longer be imagined. In the meantime, from a single product a
complete system which covers a large bandwidth of demands, can be obtained, from four (for remote houses) up
to 2,000 PT (for the catering trade, hotels and commercial objects as well as for housing estates and small villages.
In the meanwhile, from the first, for the conditions at that time revolutionary AQUAmax generation, a no less
revolutionary AQUAmax BASIC has resulted, which – with the same efficiency – can dispense with a complete
pump and can thus also with many vulnerable electrical components. And, through the exceptional AQUAmax
system, all plants can even be retrofitted per update – for phosphate removal, denitrification and, very soon, for
the disinfection of wastewater. And the development goes on further: together with well-known institutes and
universities we are working continuously on new ideas, solutions and technologies to optimise further today’s
treatment of wastewater, to make it even more efficient… and to continue to be one step ahead of the innumerable
AQUAmax copies.

AQUAmax service means 100 % security for plant installers and operators!
That not least the customer service plays a large role with such a range of products goes without saying. A team
of highly qualified and experienced staff therefore ensure that, practically around the clock, the installation partners
and the plant operators can sleep peacefully. The ATB Emergency Service, dispatch of spare parts within 24 hours,
the free hotline service, monthly installation and maintenance seminars and a great deal more round off the AQUAmax
concept and complete the ATB philosophy, which still also retains its today: to make the lives of installation partners
and operators of small wastewater treatment plants as simple as possible both economically as well as technically.

Foundation stones of success: innovation and quality
Through this target, enormous courage, visionary thinking, a large amount of innovative strength and an always
unwavering high quality, in the shortest time one of the most renowned companies in the branch with over 50
employees has resulted from a small family operation: ATB Umwelttechnologien GmbH.

With this enormous engagement in the business of wastewater treatment technology it surprises hardly anyone
that such overwhelming success has met with a wide response from the public. Thus, over recent years, ATB
has received the following awards and prizes: “Environment Prize of the German Federal State of Mecklenburg-
Vorpommern” (1999), “Austrian Environment Prize for Innovation” (2001); “Founder Champion of the German
Federal State of Nordrhein Westfalen (NRW)” (2002), “Innovation Prize Market Vision OWL” (2003), “Potential
Innovation 2004” of the Financial Times Germany, “Finalist Entrepreneur of the Year” (2004 + 2005), “Finalist
Grand Prize of Small and Medium-sized Firms” 2005…

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Industrial wastewater treatment covers the mechanisms and processes used to treat waters that have been contaminated in some way by anthropogenic industrial or commercial activities prior to its release into the environment or its re-use.
Most industries produce some wet waste although recent trends in the developed world have been to minimise such production or recycle such waste within the production process. However, many industries remain dependent on processes that produce wastewaters.
Iron and steel industry
The production of iron from its ores involves powerful reduction reactions in blast furnaces. Cooling waters are inevitably contaminated with products especially ammonia and cyanide. Production of coke from coal in coking plants also requires water cooling and the use of water in by-products separation. Contamination of waste streams includes gasification products such as benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, cyanide, ammonia, phenols, cresols together with a range of more complex organic compounds known collectively as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).
The conversion of iron or steel into sheet, wire or rods requires hot and cold mechanical transformation stages frequently employing water as a lubricant and coolant. Contaminants include hydraulic oils, tallow and particulate solids. Final treatment of iron and steel products before onward sale into manufacturing includes pickling in strong mineral acid to remove rust and prepare the surface for tin or chromium plating or for other surface treatments such as galvanisation or painting. The two acids commonly used are hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid. Wastewaters include acidic rinse waters together with waste acid. Although many plants operate acid recovery plants, (particularly those using Hydrochloric acid), where the mineral acid is boiled away from the iron salts, there remains a large volume of highly acid ferrous sulfate or ferrous chloride to be disposed of. Many steel industry wastewaters are contaminated by hydraulic oil also known as soluble oil.
Mines and quarries
The principal waste-waters associated with mines and quarries are slurries of rock particles in water. These arise from rainfall washing exposed surfaces and haul roads and also from rock washing and grading processes. Volumes of water can be very high, especially rainfall related arisings on large sites. Some specialized separation operations, such as coal washing to separate coal from native rock using density gradients, can produce wastewater contaminated by fine particulate haematite and surfactants. Oils and hydraulic oils are also common contaminants. Wastewater from metal mines and ore recovery plants are inevitably contaminated by the minerals present in the native rock formations. Following crushing and extraction of the desirable materials, undesirable materials may become contaminated in the wastewater. For metal mines, this can include unwanted metals such as zinc and other materials such as arsenic. Extraction of high value metals such as gold and silver may generate slimes containing very fine particles in where physical removal of contaminants becomes particularly difficult.
Food industry
Wastewater generated from agricultural and food operations has distinctive characteristics that set it apart from common municipal wastewater managed by public or private wastewater treatment plants throughout the world: it is biodegradable and nontoxic, but that has high concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and suspended solids (SS).[1] The constituents of food and agriculture wastewater are often complex to predict due to the differences in BOD and pH in effluents from vegetable, fruit, and meat products and due to the seasonal nature of food processing and postharvesting.
Processing of food from raw materials requires large volumes of high grade water. Vegetable washing generates waters with high loads of particulate matter and some dissolved organics. It may also contain surfactants.
Animal slaughter and processing produces very strong organic waste from body fluids, such as blood, and gut contents. This wastewater is frequently contaminated by significant levels of antibiotics and growth hormones from the animals and by a variety of pesticides used to control external parasites. Insecticide residues in fleeces is a particular problem in treating waters generated in wool processing.
Processing food for sale produces wastes generated from cooking which are often rich in plant organic material and may also contain salt, flavourings, colouring material and acids or alkali. Very significant quantities of oil or fats may also be present.
Complex organic chemicals industry
A range of industries manufacture or use complex organic chemicals. These include pesticides, pharmaceuticals, paints and dyes, petro-chemicals, detergents, plastics, paper pollution, etc. Waste waters can be contaminated by feed-stock materials, by-products, product material in soluble or particulate form, washing and cleaning agents, solvents and added value products such as plasticisers.
Nuclear industry
The waste production from the nuclear and radio-chemicals industry is dealt with at Radioactive waste.
Water treatment
Water treatment for the production of drinking water is dealt with elsewhere. Many industries have a need to treat water to obtain very high quality water for demanding purposes. Water treatment produces organic and mineral sludges from filtration and sedimentation. Ion exchange using natural or synthetic resins removes calcium, magnesium and carbonate ions from water, replacing them with hydrogen and hydroxyl ions. Regeneration of ion exchange columns with strong acids and alkalis produces a wastewater rich in hardness ions which are readily precipitated out, especially when in admixture with other wastewaters.
Treatment of industrial wastewater
The different types of contamination of wastewater require a variety of strategies to remove the contamination.
Solids removal
Most solids can be removed using simple sedimentation techniques with the solids recovered as slurry or sludge. Very fine solids and solids with densities close to the density of water pose special problems. In such case filtration or ultrafiltration may be required. Alternatively, flocculation may be used, using alum salts or the addition of polyelectrolytes.
Oils and grease removal
A typical API oil-water separator used in many industries
Many oils can be recovered from open water surfaces by skimming devices. However, hydraulic oils and the majority of oils that have degraded to any extent will also have a soluble or emulsified component that will require further treatment to eliminate. Dissolving or emulsifying oil using surfactants or solvents usually exacerbates the problem rather than solving it, producing wastewater that is more difficult to treat.
The wastewaters from large-scale industries such as oil refineries, petrochemical plants, chemical plants, and natural gas processing plants commonly contain gross amounts of oil and suspended solids. Those industries use a device known as an API oil-water separator which is designed to separate the oil and suspended solids from their wastewater effluents. The name is derived from the fact that such separators are designed according to standards published by the American Petroleum Institute (API)
The API separator is a gravity separation device designed by using Stokes Law to define the rise velocity of oil droplets based on their density and size. The design is based on the specific gravity difference between the oil and the wastewater because that difference is much smaller than the specific gravity difference between the suspended solids and water. The suspended solids settles to the bottom of the separator as a sediment layer, the oil rises to top of the separator and the cleansed wastewater is the middle layer between the oil layer and the solids.
Typically, the oil layer is skimmed off and subsequently re-processed or disposed of, and the bottom sediment layer is removed by a chain and flight scraper (or similar device) and a sludge pump. The water layer is sent to further treatment consisting usually of a dissolved air flotation (DAF) unit for additional removal of any residual oil and then to some type of biological treatment unit for removal of undesirable dissolved chemical compounds.
A typical parallel plate separator
Parallel plate separators are similar to API separators but they include tilted parallel plate assemblies (also known as parallel packs). The parallel plates provide more surfaces for suspended oil droplets to coalesce into larger globules. Such separators still depend upon the specific gravity between the suspended oil and the water. However, the parallel plates enhance the degree of oil-water separation. The result is that a parallel plate separator requires significantly less space than a conventional API separator to achieve the same degree of separation.
Removal of biodegradable organics
Biodegradable organic material of plant or animal origin is usually possible to treat using extended conventional wastewater treatment processes such as activated sludge or trickling filter. Problems can arise if the wastewater is excessively diluted with washing water or is highly concentrated such as neat blood or milk. The presence of cleaning agents, disinfectants, pesticides, or antibiotics can have detrimental impacts on treatment processes.
Activated sludge process
A generalized, schematic diagram of an activated sludge process.
Activated sludge is a biochemical process for treating sewage and industrial wastewater that uses air (or oxygen) and microorganisms to biologically oxidize organic pollutants, producing a waste sludge (or floc) containing the oxidized material. In general, an activated sludge process includes:
• An aeration tank where air (or oxygen) is injected and thoroughly mixed into the wastewater.
• A settling tank (usually referred to as a “clarifier” or “settler”) to allow the waste sludge to settle. Part of the waste sludge is recycled to the aeration tank and the remaining waste sludge is removed for further treatment and ultimate disposal.
Trickling filter process
Image 1: A schematic cross-section of the contact face of the bed media in a trickling filter
A typical complete trickling filter system
A trickling filter consists of a bed of rocks, gravel, slag, peat moss, or plastic media over which wastewater flows downward and contacts a layer (or film) of microbial slime covering the bed media. Aerobic conditions are maintained by forced air flowing through the bed or by natural convection of air. The process involves adsorption of organic compounds in the wastewater by the microbial slime layer, diffusion of air into the slime layer to provide the oxygen required for the biochemical oxidation of the organic compounds. The end products include carbon dioxide gas, water and other products of the oxidation. As the slime layer thickens, it becomes difficult for the air to penetrate the layer and an inner anaerobic layer is formed.
The components of a complete trickling filter system are: fundamental components:
• A bed of filter medium upon which a layer of microbial slime is promoted and developed.
• An enclosure or a container which houses the bed of filter medium.
• A system for distributing the flow of wastewater over the filter medium.
• A system for removing and disposing of any sludge from the treated effluent.
The treatment of sewage or other wastewater with trickling filters is among the oldest and most well characterized treatment technologies.
A trickling filter is also often called a trickle filter, trickling biofilter, biofilter, biological filter or biological trickling filter.
Treatment of other organics
Synthetic organic materials including solvents, paints, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, coking products and so forth can be very difficult to treat. Treatment methods are often specific to the material being treated. Methods include Advanced Oxidation Processing, distillation, adsorption, vitrification, incineration, chemical immobilisation or landfill disposal. Some materials such as some detergents may be capable of biological degradation and in such cases; a modified form of wastewater treatment can be used.
Treatment of acids and alkalis
Acids and alkalis can usually be neutralised under controlled conditions. Neutralisation frequently produces a precipitate that will require treatment as a solid residue that may also be toxic. In some cases, gasses may be evolved requiring treatment for the gas stream. Some other forms of treatment are usually required following neutralisation.
Waste streams rich in hardness ions as from de-ionisation processes can readily lose the hardness ions in a buildup of precipitated calcium and magnesium salts. This precipitation process can cause severe furring of pipes and can, in extreme cases, cause the blockage of disposal pipes. A 1 metre diameter industrial marine discharge pipe serving a major chemicals complex was blocked by such salts in the 1970s. Treatment is by concentration of de-ionisation waste waters and disposal to landfill or by careful pH management of the released wastewater.
Treatment of toxic materials
Toxic materials including many organic materials, metals (such as zinc, silver, cadmium, thallium, etc.) acids, alkalis, non-metallic elements (such as arsenic or selenium) are generally resistant to biological processes unless very dilute. Metals can often be precipitated out by changing the pH or by treatment with other chemicals. Many, however, are resistant to treatment or mitigation and may require concentration followed by landfilling or recycling. Disolved organics can be incinerated within the wastewater by Advanced Oxidation Processes.
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When water becomes wastewater:

The potable water becomes wastewater after it gets contaminated with natural or synthetic microbiological compounds that arises out of human activities, commercial and industrial sources. They may be accompanied with surface water, ground water and storm water. Wastewater is sewage, storm-water and water that have been used for various purposes around the community. Unless properly treated, wastewater can harm public health and the environment. Most communities generate wastewater from both residential and nonresidential sources.

Residential wastewater:

Although the word sewage usually brings toilets to mind, it is actually used to describe all types of wastewater generated from every room in a house. In the U.S, sewage varies regionally and from home to home. They are based on factors such as the number and type of water-using fixtures and appliances, the number of occupants, their ages, and even their habits, such as the types of food they eat. However, when compared to the variety of wastewater flows generated by different nonresidential sources, household wastewater shares many similar characteristics overall. There are two types of domestic sewage: black-water or wastewater from toilets, and gray water, which is wastewater from all sources except toilets. Black-water and gray-water have different characteristics, but both contain pollutants and disease causing agents that require treatment.

Nonresidential wastewater:

Nonresidential wastewater in small communities is generated by diverse sources like offices, businesses, Super markets, restaurants, schools, hospitals, farms, manufacturers, and other commercial, industrial, and institutional entities. Storm-water is a nonresidential source and carries trash and other pollutants from streets, as well as pesticides and fertilizers from yards and fields.

Because of the different nonresidential wastewater characteristics, communities need to assess each source individually or compare similar types of nonresidential sources to ensure that adequate treatment is provided. For example, public restrooms may generate wastewater with some characteristics similar to sewage, but usually at higher volumes and at different peak hours. The volume and pattern of wastewater flows from rental properties, hotels, and recreation areas often vary seasonally as well.

Laundries differ from many other nonresidential sources because they produce high volumes of wastewater containing lint fibers. Restaurants typically generate a lot of oil and grease. It may be necessary to provide pretreatment of oil and grease from restaurants or to collect it prior to treatment. For example, by adding grease traps to septic tanks.

Wastewater from some nonresidential sources also may require additional treatment. For example, storm-water should be collected separately to prevent the flooding of treatment plants during wet weather. Screens often remove trash and other large solids from storm sewers. In addition, many industries produce wastewater high in chemical and biological pollutants that, can overburden onsite and community systems. Dairy farms and breweries are good examples. Communities may require these types of nonresidential sources to provide their own treatment or preliminary treatment to protect community systems and public health.

[This blog has a Help Desk. Please post your queries there, with your Contact details if you want to be contacted. If your query is simple enough, I’ll try and answer back thru Help Desk. If it can only be answered by a specialist, I’ll try to identify a Subject Matter Expert (SME) in the relevant realm, and get him/ her to reply, thru this Help Desk or thru email. If your query is consultative in nature, she/ he may expect a fee, though.]
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Today’s Wastewater Treatment Tip
Testing and Measuring Wastewater

System operators, designers, and regulatory agencies use tests to evaluate the strength of wastewater and the amount of treatment required, the quality of effluent at different stages of treatment, and the quality of receiving waters at the point of discharge. Tests also determine whether treatment is in compliance with state, local, and federal regulations.

In small communities, operators and health officials often are trained to collect samples and perform some or all of the wastewater tests themselves. An option that sometimes is more economical for small systems is to send samples away to a lab for testing.

BOD-biochemical oxygen demand

The BOD test measures the amount of dissolved oxygen organisms are likely to need to degrade wastes in wastewater. This test is important for evaluating both how much treatment wastewater is likely to require and the potential impact that it can have on receiving waters.

To perform the test, wastewater samples are placed in BOD bottles and are diluted with specially prepared water containing dissolved oxygen. The dilution water is also “seeded” with bacteria when treated wastewater is being tested.

The amount of dissolved oxygen in the diluted sample is measured, and the samples are then stored at a constant temperature of 20 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit). Common incubation periods are five, seven, or twenty days. Five days (or BOD5) is the most common. At the end of the incubation period, the dissolved oxygen is measured again. The amount that was used (expressed in milligrams per liter) is an indication of wastewater strength.

TSS-total suspended solids

In addition to BOD, estimating the amount of suspended solids in wastewater helps to complete an overall picture of how much secondary treatment is likely to be required. It also indicates wastewater clarity and is important for assessing the potential impact of wastewater on the environment. After larger solids are removed in primary treatment, TSS is measured as the portion of solids retained by a 2.0-micron filter.

Total Coliforms and Fecal Coliforms

Coliform tests are useful for determining whether wastewater has been adequately treated and whether water quality is suitable for drinking and recreation. Because they are very abundant in human wastes, coliform bacteria are much easier to locate and identify in wastewater than viruses and other pathogens that cause severe diseases. For this reason, coliform bacteria are used as indicator organisms for the presence of other, more serious pathogens. Some coliforms are found in soil, so tests for fecal coliforms are considered to be the most reliable. However, tests for both total coliforms and fecal coliforms are commonly used.

There are two methods for determining the presence and density of coliform bacteria. The membrane filter (MF) technique provides a direct count of colonies trapped and then cultured, The multiple tube fermentation method provides an estimate of the most probable number (MPN) per 100 milliliters from the number of test tubes in which gas bubbles form after incubation.

Typical Municipal Wastewater Characteristics (in milligrams per liter)
weak medium strong Minimum treatment requirements
BOD 110 220 400 30
TSS 100 220 350 30
Nitrogen (N) 20 4 85 Variable
Phosphorus (P) 4 8 15 Variable

*Minimum national pollution discharge and elimination system (NPDES) standards. State and local requirements vary and often are more stringent. For information about local NPDES requirements, contact your regional EPA permit office or the National Small Flows Clearinghouse.

Source: Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. 1991. Wastewater Engineering Treatment, Disposal, and Reuse. 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc.
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plumbing 2.02

Whеn people bеgаn living in lаrgеr communities and thеn cities, the need fοr water and waste management hаd tο bе addressed. Plumbing in settlements іѕ thουght tο hаνе originated in ancient times. Communal baths and latrines hаνе bееn found and date back tο around 2700 BCE. The job of a plumber wаѕ more of аn inventor in thеѕе early times.

The Romans engineered complex and innovative systems fοr bringing potable water tο the home and removing the wastewater. It wasn’t until 100CE thаt Romans completed the infrastructure needed tο handle the community’s water needs. The rich wеrе the first tο hаνе thеѕе services.

Water wаѕ mονеd bу gravity in ancient days, еіthеr bу υѕе of pipe οr channel systems. Thеѕе vehicles wеrе mаdе of clay, lead, stone, and bamboo. Today water іѕ supplied and removed bу system of high-pressure pumps moving water through pipes mаdе of copper, brass, lead, steel, οr plastic.

Lead, once a common material used fοr pipes, іѕ no longer allowed in mοѕt industrial countries tο deliver water. Studies found thаt lead wаѕ transferred from the pipes іntο the water and caused health issues in humans. Plumbing аѕ a word originates from the Latin word plumbum – meaning lead – аѕ pipes wеrе mаdе from thіѕ material.

Whеn remodeling οld homes lead pipes fοr potable water mυѕt bе replaced with copper οr plastic tubing. Galvanized steel аlѕο wаѕ used in ѕοmе residential construction. Thеѕе pipes tοο ѕhουld bе replaced, аѕ thеrе іѕ a higher risk of corrosion thаt саn inhibit water flow over time.

Fοr the past three οr four decades, copper hаѕ bееn the material of сhοісе tο plumb the interior of a home. Rising tο nearly eighty-five percent of аll household tubing, people swear bу thіѕ material аѕ being the standard.

Hοwеνеr, plastic tubing hаѕ come іntο υѕе and саn provide benefits thаt copper саnnοt and ѕο the debate hаѕ begun. Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride οr CPVC υѕе hаѕ increased in residential construction ѕіnсе Polybutylene (PB) wаѕ banned in 1995 fοr failure issues. CPVC іѕ cheaper, easier tο install and handle, thаn copper tubing.

Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride hаѕ passed stringent testing tο meet standards and code compliance fοr υѕе in homes. CPVC іѕ resistant tο corrosion and abrasion. The smooth surface of plastic allows better water flow and lowers the noise of water moving through tubing. It саn resist dаmаgе due from impact and hаѕ a factor of insulation. Thіѕ tubing саn bе used whеn water іѕ acidic and the material dοеѕ not conduct electricity.

Copper hаѕ a long and grеаt track record of durability fοr water thаt іѕ not corrosive οr acidic. Thіѕ tubing саn bе used fοr water delivery and removal of wastewater. Ease of bending allows fοr less jointing in plumbing. Copper саn handle higher internal working pressure and hаѕ a high resistance tο fire.

The art of plumbing and the materials used tο plumb hаνе changed considerably over the long history of community living. Whеn уου аrе building οr remodeling, spend time tο dο аn online search tο find аn experienced plumber. Discuss whаt type of tubing іѕ best suited fοr уουr home, υѕе, and circumstance.
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Plumbing Service, Repair, and Replacement
Posted on October 23, 2014 by
Many people аt one point οr another wіll need thе service οf a plumber tο hеlр fix a leak, install a nеw fixture, οr tο replace something іn thеіr plumbing system bесаυѕе οf dаmаgе οr υѕе. Mοѕt οf thеѕе repairs аnd replacements tend tο bе very affordable, аnd thеу аrе very cost effective bесаυѕе repairing something early οn wіll save money іn thе long rυn frοm having tο completely replace something. Whеn іt comes time tο replace something, уου саn trust уουr plumber tο offer thе best products tο υѕе, аnd trust thаt thе installation wіll bе professional аnd backed bу a full warranty.
Many people fail tο schedule regular maintenance οn сеrtаіn aspects οf thеіr plumbing system. Regularly servicing аnd up keeping faucets, pipes, аnd generally everything dealing wіth plumbing wіll hеlр іn thе long rυn frοm having tο mаkе major replacements аnd repairs. Preventative maintenance іѕ always easily forgotten whеn іt comes tο up keeping anything іn уουr home. Maintaining уουr septic system іѕ аlѕο very іmрοrtаnt bесаυѕе once a septic tank backs up, οr needs repair work done tο іt, thіѕ саn gеt very expensive, аnd very messy.
Whеn іt comes tο plumbing repair, thіѕ саn range frοm complicated аnd expensive, tο easily done аnd very affordable. If уου feel thеrе іѕ a problem wіth уουr plumbing, іt іѕ best tο contact уουr plumber аѕ soon аѕ possible tο hаνе аn evaluation done tο see whаt mіght thе problem bе ѕο thаt іt саn bе repaired fаѕt. Yου dο nοt want a faucet οr toilet slowly leaking water bесаυѕе thіѕ excess water wіll add up very quickly onto уουr water bill, οr іt саn cause more dаmаgе іn thе long rυn. Repairing pipes аnd οthеr facets οf plumbing іѕ always time sensitive, ѕο аѕ ѕаіd before, never hesitate tο contact уουr plumber whеn a problem arises, especially fοr emergency services.

Many people сhοοѕе tο remodel thеіr kitchens, аnd thе bathrooms οf thеіr homes аt one point οr another, whісh mаkеѕ іt a necessity tο υѕе a plumber tο install nеw faucets аnd fixtures, οr tο mονе pipes ѕο thаt уου саn change thе layout οf a sink. Mοѕt οf thіѕ work іѕ done wіth affordability іn mind. Yουr plumber саn recommend many different types οf faucets аnd fixtures thаt аrе efficient іn running water, аnd reliable fixtures саn bе offered tο install thаt hardly еνеr need tο bе repaired. All οf thіѕ work wіll bе done properly bу a plumber, аnd wіll bе backed bу a warranty οf a specific length, depending οn thе work thаt wаѕ performed.

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Plumbing Maintenance Checklist: Things to Have On It
Posted on October 13, 2014 by
Aѕ a home owner one comes асrοѕѕ a number οf issues, аnd maintenance consumes a major раrt οf thе expenditure thаt уου dο οn a regular basis. Thе best раrt аbουt maintenance іѕ thаt thе more organised уου аrе thе better іt gets. Yου need tο follow a regular cycle tο ensure thаt уου mаkе thе mοѕt οf іt whіlе уου саn аnd avoid аnу issues frοm getting out οf hand.
Being a homeowner іѕ a task іn itself аnd іf уου аrе nοt thorough wіth уουr maintenance, thеn іt саn become аn uphill one wіth minor issues escalating, branching іntο οthеr sub domains аnd mаkіng іt harder fοr уου tο take care οf уουr beloved home. Fοr instance plumbing аnd plumbing maintenance іѕ a major concern fοr аlmοѕt еνеrу home owner аnd without a gοοd system іt won’t take time fοr уου tο gеt fed up οf something thаt уου considered one οf уουr mοѕt prized possessions.
Before уου ѕtаrt wіth уουr plumbing maintenance process mаkе sure thаt уου hаνе a checklist thаt hаѕ аll thе components thаt need tο bе checked fοr аnу possible leaks οr аnу οthеr such problems. Lеt υѕ take a look аt аll thе components thаt аrе a mυѕt tο hаνе οn уουr list.
Water supply аnd waste outlet: Stаrt wіth thе inlet аnd outlet οf уουr house. Check thе water pressure аt thе main water supply thаt enters уουr house аnd inspect fοr аnу leaks. Mονе over tο thе disposal system аnd thoroughly check fοr аnу leaks аnd blockages. Once уου аrе done wіth іt, mаkе sure thаt еνеrу component іѕ іn a реrfесtlу working condition аnd replace аnу components thаt аrе nοt fit οr mіght give іn unannounced.

Drains: Whеn уου check thе drains, ensure thаt thеу аrе реrfесtlу sealed аnd thаt none οf thеm іѕ broken, ѕіnсе thаt саn bе a potential window fοr pests аnd insects tο enter уουr household. Alѕο mаkе sure thаt none οf thеm іѕ blocked аnd іf іn case thаt happens unclog іt аt thе earliest.
Shower heads аnd taps: Thіѕ саn bе a tricky раrt аnd іt wουld bе grеаt іf уου hire a professional plumbing maintenance company tο replace аnу broken οr leaking раrtѕ. If уου рlаn οn doing іt yourself thеn don’t јυѕt gο аbουt replacing еνеrу tap аnd showerhead іn thе house. Look closely fοr аnу cracks аnd υѕе a sealant tο fill minor ones.
Mildew: Check thе house fοr аnу mildew growth, ѕіnсе thеѕе grow іn moist conditions іt саn hеlр уου tο find leaks іn thе pipes. Mаkе sure thаt уου gеt rid οf thеѕе leaks аѕ soon аѕ possible, аnd ensure thаt each οf thе рοrtіοnѕ іѕ properly sealed. Give іt ѕοmе time before уου take a sigh οf relief.
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Residential Plumbing Services: Sump Pump Spring Examination and Maintenance Tips
Posted on October 1, 2014 by
Sοmе home plumbing maintenance tasks аrе best entrusted tο experts – examining уουr sump pump іn preparation fοr spring rains, fοr instance. Rаthеr thаn trying tο judge thе health οf уουr pump yourself, іt’s wise tο hаνе a professional residential plumbing services professional dο іt fοr уου, аѕ wе ехрlаіn further below. First, hοwеνеr, lеt’s review whу residential plumbing services install sump pumps іn thе first рlасе.
Thе basic purpose οf a sump pump іѕ tο gather аnd pump excess water іt tο a removed area away frοm buildings. Oftentimes, home plumbing pumps direct water tο municipal storm drains. Typically, thеѕе pumps handle subterranean water; аѕ such, thеу аrе common іn locations whеrе thе local water table іѕ higher thаn homes’ foundations. Such areas аrе especially prone tο basement flooding during heavy spring rains.
Whу ѕhουld homeowners worry аbουt standing water? Well, thе first reason іѕ health-related. Standing water fosters mildew аnd mold growth, whісh аrе known tο cause health issues over time. Studies hаνе discovered a connection between wet basements аnd respiratory problems including allergies аnd asthma. Moreover, people whο аrе exposed tο allergens іn thеіr childhoods аrе typically more sensitive tο thеm аѕ adults.
Thе second reason tο bе concerned аbουt standing water іѕ thаt іt саn easily bring аbουt considerable structural dаmаgе tο уουr home. Water іѕ a key ingredient іn nature’s recipe fοr rotting. Interior finishes, wood subflooring, аnd stored objects wіll decay іf left іn a soggy basement. Of course, frοm a day-tο-day perspective, thе best reason tο remove excess water using a sump pump іѕ thаt otherwise уουr basement wіll bе unusable until thе water naturally drains away аftеr thе storm.

Tο avoid having standing water destroying уουr basement, іt’s best tο arrange fοr a home plumbing guru tο examine уουr sump pump prior tο spring rains.
Here аrе ѕοmе sump pump maintenance points tο consider:
1. Thе flotation device located inside a pump саn fail. Thіѕ іѕ key bесаυѕе thе “float” determines whеn thе thіѕ pump turns οn.
2. Debris аnd algae саn gеt stuck inside thеѕе pumps. Thіѕ іѕ nοt a superficial issue; a jammed sump pump іѕ аrе more lіkеlу tο overheat, whісh οftеn leads tο mechanical failure. Tο solve thіѕ problem, residential plumbers flush thе whole sump pit аѕ well аѕ thе pump’s tubes.
3. Thе backup pump mау malfunction, іf уου even hаνе one. Thеѕе days, thе more common backup іѕ comprised οf a set οf standby batteries thаt аrе rigged tο power thе pump іn emergencies. If уουr backup battery іѕ nοt operational, уου’re јυѕt asking fοr trουblе during thе next deluge.
4. Older sump pumps – those thаt аrе more thаn 10 years οld – mау suffer mechanical problems such аѕ deteriorating motors οr freezing οf thе impeller. All mechanical devices require a lіttlе attention now аnd thеn tο function properly, аnd sump pumps аrе nο example, аѕ residential plumbers саn tеll уου.
All οf thеѕе failures аrе best corrected bу expert, professional residential plumbers. Even іf уουr sump pump seems tο bе working a-okay, remember tο hаνе іt inspected annually, аt thе very lеаѕt. Home plumbing experts саn vouch fοr thе fact thаt іt’s better tο pre-empt flooding issues bу arranging regular pump inspections, rаthеr thаn leaving thе health οf уουr pump tο chance.
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Tiles Replacement Guidelines
Flexible tiles are used for bathroom floors can become nicked or gouged, or severely discolored from accidentally dropped medication. Visalia Plumbers suggest the residents of Visalia CA that they can replace such tiles, but you will have two problems. The first is to be able to match the existing tiles, but if you have some pieces left over from the original installation, or if it is a very popular type of tiles, then your first problem are solved.
The second is a bit more difficult. Visalia Plumbers says as tiles are exposed to light and to wear, it changes color. It may have darkened. And so the replacement tiles will be quite obvious. However, even if you don’t have a perfect match, it will be better than tiles that are damaged. As a first step you will need to remove the loose or damaged tiles. You can use an electric iron to help soften the adhesive. Put a section of rag between the tiles and the faceplate of the iron to avoid damaging the surface of the iron. If the iron has a steam setting, turn it off. Try lifting one corner of the tiles with a putty knife. If you can get the knife into position beneath the tile, keep working it back and forth, and at the same time keeping the hot iron directly above it. It takes a little maneuvering and if you can get someone to help you, so much the better. Not all of the original adhesive will come off with the tiles. Some will still be on the floor. Scrape away the adhesive using a floor scraper. You may need to use coarse sandpaper to remove some stubborn spots. Keep the sandpaper away from the adjoining tiles to keep from damaging it.
Now fit a sample tiles into the space you have just provided. If the replacement tiles are a bit too large you can trim it with a knife or shears. As tiles gets older it tends to become brittle. If you warm the tiles before cutting, it will have less of a tendency to break. We also offer guidelines about leaking faucet and other plumbing problems. Once you are certain the replacement tiles will fit, spread adhesive on the floor or wall with a putty knife. Make sure you cover the entire surface area of the exposed section of wall or floor. Wait about five minutes to give the adhesive a chance to begin setting; then put the tiles down and press it into position firmly. Remove any adhesive that may squeeze out of the edges.
Continue pressing down on the tiles, and when you are sure no more adhesive will push out, press it more firmly into place by using a wooden rolling pin. If you have no roller, cover the tiles with a sheet of newspaper and then step down on the tiles. Move your foot so as to be sure to cover every section of the tiles. Afterward, remove the newspaper and examine the tiles carefully to make sure it is uniformly flat. Just one precaution: The surface to receive the tiles must be absolutely flat. If there are any nail heads in the toilet floor or any bumps of any kind, or any tiny lumps of old adhesive, the result will be a bump in the new tiles. And as you step on it, the new tiles will crack or break right in the area of that bump.
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Faucets Repairing Tips
Plumbers leaking faucet problem discussed here, but there are still a number of small difficulties you should know about. It is sometimes hard to remove the faucet handle. The handle may be a type that is a force-fit. It is held into place by forcing it onto a fluted stem. Sometimes the only way to remove such a handle is through the use of a special handle removing tool. If the shower handle is made of cast metal, trying to pry it loose with a hammer may cause it to fracture. Try working the handle loose with a tool, using the tool beneath the handle to give you leverage. Do not assume, because you cannot immediately see a holding screw, that the faucet handle is a force-fit type. In some faucets the holding screw is cleverly concealed, so first make sure your faucet handle isn’t this type. The screw may be mounted on top of the handle or somewhere along the side. If on the top it may be concealed by a plastic insert. The position of the screw with reference to the handle in one type of faucet. The citizens of Visalia CA After you shut off the water supply remove the screw. This doesn’t mean the faucet handle will automatically lift off. Through its design and continued use, the handle may still be firmly in place and so you may still need to pry it upward. Once you’ve managed that, you can unscrew the bonnet nut with a wrench and then remove the stem assembly.
The washer is held in place by a Bibb screw. Since this screw is in contact with water and air so regularly, it has every reason to rust—and it will rust unless you use a non-rusting type, such as a brass screw. The head of the screw must have the right diameter. If the diameter of the Bibb screw head is too large, the washer will not be able to fit the faucet seat and no amount of pressure on the handle will stop the dripping of the water. Further, if you try to put pressure on the handle when the screw head is too large, you may easily damage the faucet seat. Then, what was a small plumbing job originally becomes a much larger one. Visalia Plumbers suggests that before you replace a washer, examine it. If it is the flat type, mount it so the smooth side is exposed. If it is the beveled type, mount it so the bevel side is out. The easiest, but not the most economical way of buying washers is to get a box of the so-called assorted sizes. This will supply washers in all sorts of diameters, but since you can use one size only for your particular faucet, you are really paying for washers you may never need or use. Learn your washer size. There are many different types and the lower part of just a few of the more common ones. The best way to do it is to remove your old washer, take it with you to the plumbing store, and ask our plumbers to identify the size for you. Put this information on a card and then tack the card to the inside of your toilet cabinet. Finding the location of the screw (or screws) that hold your handle in position is just the first step. Removing or loosening the screw is the next. Some handles are held in by three set screws. For these you will need a set screw wrench.

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Are Camera Plumbing Tools Effective in Aiding Plumbing Repairs?
Posted on February 27, 2014 by
Thе plumbing system іѕ аn extensive system thаt runs іntο thе home, throughout thе home, аnd thеn tο thе outdoors. It іѕ a long maze thаt іѕ difficult tο follow unless уου аrе аn experienced plumber whο understands thе network аnd thе components thаt mаkе up thе network. One οf thе main features οf thе plumbing system іѕ thе different types οf pipes. Thеrе аrе pipes thаt bring water іntο thе home аnd pipes thаt carry waste water out οf thе home tο thе septic tank. Bесаυѕе thе plumbing system іѕ аn intricate network οf pipes running іn аnd out οf thе home, іt іѕ οftеn nοt easy fοr a homeowner tο locate a problem. If уου hаνе problem іn уουr pipes such аѕ a possible blockage somewhere іn thе line, уου wіll οftеn need thе services οf a plumber whο саn locate thе blockage аnd mаkе thе appropriate repair. On device a plumber саn υѕе tο identify a problem іn a pipe іѕ a video camera.
Thеrе wаѕ a time whеn thе οnlу way tο find аn unidentified blockage іn thе pipes wаѕ tο dig up thе ground іn various areas until thе problem wаѕ located. Today plumbers саn find thе precise location οf a problem without having tο excavate іn many areas. A video camera pipe inspection allows fοr real-time visual inspection οf thе plumbing pipes. Bу using video inspection camera, a plumber саn identify pipe dаmаgе аnd аnу blockages thаt аrе preventing thе water frοm flowing through thе system. A video recording іѕ mаdе аѕ thе camera travels through thе pipes ѕο thе plumber саn identify thе problem аѕ soon аѕ thе camera records іt. Thе plumber саn thеn ѕhοw thе homeowner thе video аnd thеn provide thе estimate fοr thе cost οf repair. Aѕ well, a video recording саn аlѕο bе used tο ѕhοw a homeowner hοw dirty thе pipes аrе аnd whу thеу need tο bе thoroughly cleaned.

Thе plumber uses a long flexible fibber optic video camera аnd feeds іt through thе sewer line. It саn bе operated bу remote control. Thеrе аrе a variety οf different problems thаt video cameras pinpoint during a pipe inspection. Thіѕ саn include: cracked οr broken pipes, misaligned pipes, clogs, corroded pipes, leaking joints, root penetration, аnd sections οf pipe thаt sunk іntο thе ground сrеаtіng a pool οf waste, Thеrе hаνе аlѕο bееn many cases whеrе video inspection cameras hаνе bееn used tο locate lost items such аѕ jewellery.
Plumbers today hаνе a wide variety οf high tech tools tο hеlр thеm diagnose a problem. A video camera іѕ аn ideal method οf inspecting pipes fοr dаmаgе аnd blockages. It іѕ аlѕο a gοοd way fοr уου tο mаkе sure уουr pipes аrе still іn gοοd condition. If a problem іѕ identified, thе plumber саn mаkе thе repair before іt gets worse аnd causes really serious dаmаgе аnd аn expensive repair bill. A video inspection bу a professional plumber wіll hеlр ensure уουr plumbing systems stays іn optimal working condition.

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An important part of plumbing work is installing fixtures, particularly the sink, tub, and toilet. Following is information on what is available and tips on installation. Before you install new fixtures in an existing bath, it is well to think a bit. A new bath job may range from just taking out the fixtures and installing new ones to ripping out everything to the studs and starting from scratch. If it is a very old bathroom, probably the best thing is to go down to the studs. If there is only one bath in the house, you will have to go slowly. Plan your work so that you do not inconvenience anyone. Take the fixtures out only when you are ready to get the new ones in right away. Of course, if the work is new, you need not worry about any of the above.

Removing Fixtures
There are certain things that you must do when removing fixtures. The first is to turn off the water supply. Usually, as explained earlier, there are valves for turning off the basin and toilet. Basin valves (there are two) are under the sink; the toilets valve is under the water closet. Tub valves (two) are in the cellar beneath the tub, or they may be in a panel in a wall behind the tub; in a slab house the valves may be in the utility room. If you cannot find the appropriate valves, you can turn off the main valve in the basement, turning off all water, hot and cold, in the entire house. Expert plumbers strongly recommend for the people that when you disconnect any fixture, pay careful attention to how it be connected. It will make the job of putting the new one in easier.

Removing kitchen sinks
To remove a kitchen sink, you will have to loosen clips that hold the sink to the countertop. The faucet has two thin supply pipes leading from it that hook up with water pipes coming out of the wall; a basin wrench is handy for removing nuts that are up close to the back of the sink. The basin also is tied into the waste line. Here, there is a slip nut (you pull it up with your fingers) that holds the drain pipe in place in the trap. When all nuts are loose, you can just lift the sink up and out of the way.

Removing toilets
Greenbay Plumbers gives you suggestions about the removable toilet action. First, flush the bowl. Use a pot to remove all water from the bowl (or as much as you can); sponge out the rest. One type of bowl has a flush elbow, which is connected to the tank. Unscrew with a wrench and take the bowl and tank out separately. New types of toilets have the tank and bowl in one piece. In either case, toilets are connected to the floor flange with two or four bolts that must be removed before you can lift the toilet out of the way.
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Toilets are made in two basic shapes—elongated and round. Colors vary (colored fixtures are more expensive than white), As durable as this material is, it is subject to scratching and chipping and should be handled with care on the job. There are three different flushing actions commonly used in toilets for residences. These result from bowl design and, although they have been available for years, few individuals are familiar with their differences or the advantages of one over the other. Consequently, price has frequently been the determining factor in bowl selection, resulting later in dissatisfaction.

Bowl designs
The wash-down bowl discharges into a trap way at the front; it is most easily recognized by a characteristic bulge on the front. It has a much smaller exposed water surface inside the bowl, with a large flat exposed china surface at the front of the bowls interior. Since this area is not protected by water, it is subject to fouling, contamination, and staining. The trap way in the wash-down bowl is not round, and its interior is frequently irregular in shape because of the exterior design and the method of manufacture. Characteristically, the wash down bowl does not flush as well or as quietly as other bowls. You are suggested to always prefer experienced Greenbay Plumbers for your entire plumbing enquiry such as sink fitting, heating solutions, basin services, pipes and much more This type of bowl is no longer accepted by many municipal code authorities, and many manufacturers have deleted it from their manufacturing inventory.
Reverse trap: The reverse trap bowl discharges into a trap way at the rear of the bowl. Most manufacturers’ models have a large exposed water surface, thereby reducing fouling and staining of the bowl interior. The trap way is generally round, providing a more efficient flushing action. Siphon jet: The siphon jet is similar to the reverse trap in that the trap- way also discharges to the rear of the bowl. All models must have a large exposed water surface, leaving less interior china surface exposed to fouling or contamination. The trap way must be large, and it is engineered to be as round as possible for the most efficient drainage system and flushing action. The basic differences between the siphon jet and the reverse trap bowls are in these areas, both minimums being larger in the siphon jet to assure better flushing action and less bowl contamination.

Installing Toilet
There is usually either a 3-inch copper waste pipe or a 4-inch lead pipe coming up through the floor that is 12 inches (to the center of the pipe) from the finished wall. On a ceramic tile floor a brass toilet flange is installed directly on the floor; otherwise, you must use a marble slab under it. Different toilet flanges are made use of at Greenbay WI, like with lead or copper pipe, and you need one to match the kind of waste pipe there is. If there is copper, the flange you use may be either straight or offset. The offset flange is used to get more or less clearance from the wall if the waste pipe is not exactly right. If a lead pipe is not exactly right for the flange to fit, it may be dressed (bent) by tapping it gently with a dressing tool or with a hammer handle to fit. Lead is soft, so fitting should be no problem.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. Many agriculturalsoils need drainage to improve production or to manage water supplies.

A typical drain in the
City of Bankstown
Early history
The earliest archaeological record of an advanced system of drainage comes from the Indus Valley Civilization from around 3100 BC in what is now Pakistan and North India. The ancient Indus systems of sewerage and drainage that were developed and used in cities throughout the civilization were far more advanced than any found in contemporary urban sites in the Middle East and even more efficient than those in some areas of modern Pakistan and India today. All houses in the major cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro had access to water and drainage facilities. Waste water was directed to covered drains, which lined the major streets.

Reasons for artificial drainage
An agricultural drainage channel outside
Magome,
Japanafter a heavy rain. Note that protuberances create turbulent water, preventing sediment from settling in the channel.

Wetland soils may need drainage to be used for agriculture. In the northern USA and Europe, glaciation created numerous small lakes which gradually filled with humus to make marshes. Some of these were drained using open ditches and trenches to make mucklands, which are primarily used for high value crops such as vegetables.

The largest project of this type in the world has been in process for centuries in the Netherlands. The area between Amsterdam, Haarlem and Leiden was, in prehistoric times swampland and small lakes. Turf cutting (Peatmining), subsidence and shoreline erosion gradually caused the formation of one large lake, the Haarlemmermeer, or lake of Haarlem. The invention of wind powered pumping engines in the 15th century permitted drainage of some of the marginal land, but the final drainage of the lake had to await the design of large, steam powered pumps and agreements between regional authorities. The elimination of the lake occurred between 1849 and 1852, creating thousands of km² of new land.

Coastal plains and river deltas may have seasonally or permanently high water tables and must have drainage improvements if they are to be used for agriculture. An example is the flatwoods citrus-growing region of Florida. After periods of high rainfall, drainage pumps are employed to prevent damage to the citrus groves from overly wet soils. Rice production requires complete control of water, as fields need to be flooded or drained at different stages of the crop cycle. The Netherlands has also led the way in this type of drainage, not only to drain lowland along the shore, but actually pushing back the sea until the original nation has been greatly enlarged.

In moist climates, soils may be adequate for cropping with the exception that they become waterlogged for brief periods each year, from snow melt or from heavy rains. Soils that are predominantly clay will pass water very slowly downward, meanwhile plant roots suffocate because the excessive water around the roots eliminates air movement through the soil.
Other soils may have an impervious layer of mineralized soil, called a hardpan or relatively impervious rock layers may underlie shallow soils. Drainage is especially important in tree fruit production. Soils that are otherwise excellent may be waterlogged for a week of the year, which is sufficient to kill fruit trees and cost the productivity of the land until replacements can be established. In each of these cases appropriate drainage carries off temporary flushes of water to prevent damage to annual or perennial crops.

Drier areas are often farmed by irrigation, and one would not consider drainage necessary. However, irrigation water always contains minerals and salts, which can be concentrated to toxic levels by evapotranspiration. Irrigated land may need periodic flushes with excessive irrigation water and drainage to control soil salinity.

Drainage in the 19th century
From the 1881 Household Cyclopedia

This operation is always best performed in spring or summer, when the ground is dry. Main drains ought to be made in every part of the field where a cross-cut or open drain was formerly wanted; they ought to be cut four feet (1.2 m) deep, upon an average. This completely secures them from the possibility of being damaged by the treading of horses or cattle, and being so far below the small drains, clears the water finely out of them. In every situation, pipe-turfs for the main drains, if they can be had, are preferable. If good stiff clay, a single row of pipe-turf; if sandy, a double row. When pipe-turf cannot be got conveniently, a good wedge drain may answer well, when the subsoil is a strong, stiff clay; but if the subsoil be only moderately so, a thorn drain, with couples below, will do still better; and if the subsoil is very sandy, except pipes can be had, it is in vain to attempt under-draining the field by any other method. It may be necessary to mention here that the size of the main drains ought to be regulated according to the length and declivity of the run, and the quantity of water to be carried off by them. It is always safe, however, to have the main drains large, and plenty of them; for economy here seldom turns out well.

Having finished the main drains, proceed next to make a small drain in every furrow of the field if the ridges formerly have not been less than fifteen feet (5 m) wide. But if that should be the case, first level the ridges, and make the drains in the best direction, and at such a distance from each other as may be thought necessary. If the water rises well in the bottom of the drains, they ought to be cut three feet (1 m) deep, and in this ease would dry the field sufficiently well, although they were from twenty-five to thirty feet (8 to 10 m) asunder; but if the water does not draw well to the bottom of the drains, two feet (0.6 m) will be a sufficient deepness for the pipe-drain, and two and a half feet (1 m) for the wedge drain. In no case ought they to be shallower where the field has been previously leveled. In this instance, however, as the surface water is carried off chiefly by the water sinking immediately into the top of the drains, it will be necessary to have the drains much nearer each other–say from fifteen to twenty feet (5 to 6 m). If the ridges are more than fifteen feet (5 m) wide, however broad and irregular they may be, follow invariably the line of the old furrows, as the best direction for the drains; and, where they are high-gathered ridges, from twenty to twenty-four inches will be a sufficient depth for the pipe-drain, and from twenty-four to thirty inches for the wedge-drain. Particular care should be taken in connecting the small and main drains together, so that the water may have a gentle declivity, with free access into the main drains.

When the drains are finished, the ridges are cleaved down upon the drains by the plough; and where they had been very high formerly, a second clearing may be given; but it is better not to level the ridges too much, for by allowing them to retain a little of their former shape, the ground being lowest immediately where the drains are, the surface water collects upon the top of the drains; and, by shrinking into them, gets freely away. After the field is thus finished, run the new ridges across the small drains, making them about ten feet (3 m) broad, and continue afterwards to plough the field in the same manner as dry land.

It is evident from the above method of draining that the expense will vary very much, according to the quantity of main drains necessary for the field, the distance of the small drains from each other, and the distance the turf is to be carried.

The advantage resulting from under-draining, is very great, for besides a considerable saving annually of water furrowing, cross cutting, etc., the land can often be ploughed and sown to advantage, both in the spring and in the fall of the year, when otherwise it would be found quite impracticable; every species of drilled crops, such as beans, potatoes, turnips, etc., can be cultivated successfully; and every species, both of green and white crops, is less apt to fail in wet and untoward seasons.

Wherever a burst of water appears in any particular spot, the sure and certain way of getting quit of such an evil is to dig hollow drains to such a depth below the surface as is required by the fall or level that can be gained, and by the quantity of water expected to proceed from the burst or spring. Having ascertained the extent of water to be carried off, taken the necessary levels, and cleared a mouth or loading passage for the water, begin the drain at the extremity next to that leader, and go on with the work till the top of the spring is touched, which probably will accomplish the intended object. But if it should not be completely accomplished, run off from the main drain with such a number of branches as may be required to intercept the water, and in this way disappointment will hardly be experienced. Drains, to be substantially useful, should seldom be less than three feet (1 m) in depth, twenty or twenty four inches thereof to be close packed with stones or wood, according to circumstances. The former are the best materials, but in many places are not to be got in sufficient quantities; recourse therefore, must often be made to the latter, though not so effectual or durable.

It is of vast importance to fill up drains as fast as they are dug out; because, if left open for any length of time, the earth is not only apt to fall in but the sides get into a broken, irregular state, which cannot afterwards be completely rectified. A proper covering of straw or sod should be put upon the top of the materials, to keep the surface earth from mixing with them; and where wood is the material used for filling up, a double degree of attention is necessary, otherwise the proposed improvement may be effectually frustrated.

The pit method of draining is a very effectual one, if executed with judgment. When it is sufficiently ascertained where the bed of water is deposited, which can easily be done by boring with an auger, sink a pit into the place of a size which will allow a man freely to work within its bounds. Dig this pit of such a depth as to reach the bed of the water meant to be carried off; and when this depth is attained, which is easily discerned by the rising of the water, fill up the pit with great land-stones and carry off the water by a stout drain to some adjoining ditch or mouth, whence it may proceed to the nearest river.

Current practices
A plastic flexible rainpipe, used to drain water from the roof of a dwelling

Modern drainage systems incorporate geotextile filters that retain and prevent fine grains of soil from passing into and clogging the drain. Geotextiles are synthetic textile fabrics specially manufactured for civil and environmental engineering applications. Geotextiles are designed to retain fine soil particles while allowing water to pass through. In a typical drainage system they would be laid along a trench which would then be filled with coarse granular material: gravel, sea shells, stone or rock. The geotextile is then folded over the top of the stone and the trench is then covered by soil. Groundwater seeps through the geotextile and flows within the stone to an outfall. In high groundwater conditions a perforated plastic (PVC or PE) pipe is laid along the base of the drain to increase the volume of water transported in the drain.

Alternatively prefabricated plastic drainage systems, often incorporating geotextile, coco fiber or ragfilters can be considered. The use of these materials has become increasingly more common due to their ease of use which eliminates the need for transporting and laying stone drainage aggregate which is invariably more expensive than a synthetic drain.

Over the past 30 years geotextile and PVC filters have become the most commonly used soil filter media. They are cheap to produce and easy to lay, with factory controlled properties that ensure long term filtration performance even in fine silty soil conditions.

Drainage in construction
Piping being placed for a sink

The civil engineer or site engineer is responsible for drainage in construction projects. They set out from the plans all the roads, Street gutters, drainage, culverts and sewers involved in construction operations. During the construction of the work on site he/she will set out all the necessary levels for each of the previously mentioned factors.

Site engineers work alongside architects and construction managers, supervisors, planners, quantity surveyors, the general workforce, as well as subcontractors. Typically, most jurisdictions have some body of drainage law to govern to what degree a landowner can alter the drainage from his parcel.

See also
External links
Look up
Drainagein

Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

International Geosynthetics Society, information on geotextiles and geosynthetics in general.
WebCom Systems, software created for designing soakaways and filter trenches.
Drainage Systems, drainage systems revealed, drainage tips and guide, plans and photos.
River water higher than land
NDS, drainage calculator.
Ancient drains, a series of images of the earliest drainage systems in the ancient Indus city of Mohenjo daro
Draining for Profit, and Draining for Health by George E. Waring, 1867, from Project Gutenberg
Drainage Resources, Systems and Technology, Specification Drainage Resources
Drainage photos
Waterlogging, free downloads of articles and software on agricultural land drainage.
ADS-Pipe Drainage Calculators, web based and MS Excel drain calculators.
Principles of Exterior Drainage, installation guide.
References
Categories:
Agricultural soil science|
Building engineering|
Hydraulic engineering|
Hydrology|
Land management|
Archaeological featuresHidden category:
Articles needing additional references from September 2007

plumbing 2.20 tier 1

Tubs and Showers

When it comes time to remodel your current bathroom, or you simply want an updated look, tub and shower replacement are a great way to modernize your bathroom’s appeal and function. From plain white, one-piece drop in units to contemporary cast-iron claw foots, complex arrangements or complete tile walls, tub and shower redo’s are an easy way to change the look of your bathroom while opening up the door to many custom and value increasing options along the way.

Many choices are available when replacing a tub assembly. If the tub is a combo as in many homes, it has three walls and an entrance, and is normally made of fiberglass. Sometimes one piece, other times, multi-piece, this assembly can be purchased in many colors with hundreds of wall designs and unique etched patterns. Replacement is basically straight-forward, with the extraction of the old tub combo the largest portion of the job. Installation of the new piece involves hooking up the drainage and tub/shower valve, then sealing all the work.

Stand alone claw foot tubs are an older design that has recently regained popularity. Elegant and contemporary, claw foot tubs sit on the floor away from any surrounding walls, with the drain stubbed up from the floor directly behind it. The tub/shower valve resembles a faucet, and is attached to the edge of the tub on one end. Claw-foot tubs range higher in price due to their design and construction, and are much heavier that standard fiberglass units. Installation is, once again, simple, just setting the tub in place and connecting pipes and water supplies.

Replacing a shower involves a few more decisions. Showers are usually of the fiberglass type as well, while some are complete tile assemblies with a shower pan underneath. Replacing a fiberglass assembly with another unit of the same style and size is relatively easy, and the most common type of replacement. The shower valve and drainage are disconnected, and the old shower assembly is pulled out. The new shower is then installed, connecting everything back up and sealing all the edges. Removal of sheetrock or wall material is usually necessary to accommodate the complete installations, as access to the shower valve is necessary. Replacing a tile shower is much more tedious, and as such is more expensive. Removal of all the tile work is the first step. This alone is complex work and can take some time. Disconnecting the drainage and shower valve is necessary. The shower pan is now accessible. If replacement of the shower pan is needed (older pans were made of lead, and often leaked), now is the time to do that job. Once all prep work has been completed, including valve replacement, drain work, and if necessary, the shower pan, a tile contractor can now come and reinstall all of the tiling, with thousands of colors and design options. Plumbers DO NOT do this task. Once all the tile has been replaced, a plumber can come back and finish the shower, installing the shower arm, handle, and trim plate.

Faucets

All sinks in your house have some sort of faucet attached. Single handle or two handle, faucets are the outlets of water inside the house. They come in thousands of different styles, finishes, sizes, and shapes. Your kitchens, bathroom sink, and utility sinks all require a faucet for operation, and we service and install them ALL.

Homeowners repair and replace faucets for all sorts of reasons. Sometimes faucets begin to drip after many years. Some corrode and rust. Some crack or break. Other times homeowners become tired of their current faucets and want to update the look of their kitchens and bathrooms. In 99% of new faucet installations, we recommend that you go out and purchase the faucet you like. This is because there are SO MANY different options of faucets on the market that if we were to pick one up for you, the odds of us getting the one you want are slim to none. Buying one yourself guarantees that you will get exactly what you are looking for, and seeing as how our prices hardly change due to the model or brand, your installation fees remain consistent. Fees only differ for lavatory and kitchen faucets. During the installation process, we will remove and dispose of your old faucet, and install your new unit, ensuring that everything functions properly before we leave. Labor warranty is our standard 12-month, with the faucet’s warranty defaulting to the manufacturer.

Not all faucet issues require complete replacement of the whole assembly. In many instances we can make small repairs to the faucet’s internal components to stop leaks or other problems. The replacement of small parts such as washers, springs, and cartridges can be a less expensive alternative to complete faucet replacement, sometimes halving the total cost to you. Often times simply repairing the existing faucet will give you many more years of dependable service without incident. No matter what make or model, style or finish, we service all faucets and can find almost any part necessary to complete the job. As always, all faucet repairs carry our 12-month warranty. Faucet replacements have this, as well as the manufacturer’s warranty on the faucet itself (usually 10 years or lifetime).

Toilets

Ever woken up in the middle of the night to the sound of a running toilet? Stumbling your way through the dark to jiggle the handle has never been a fun proposition, however, almost every toilet will, at some point, begin to run, leak, or make odd noises. This is simply the nature of the parts inside a toilet’s tank that comprise the flushing system. With a combination of brass, rubber, plastic, and other misc materials, there are multiple points for possible failure. Leaks from tank bolts or cracked valve shanks are common as well. Fill valves begin to wear out and allow excess water to enter the tank, flappers become warped and allow water to run into the bowl, and even the toilet’s flush handle can rust. We will resolve each and every one of these issues for you quickly and reliably, giving your toilets several more years of dependable, trouble-free usage.

When toilets reach a certain age, it is often best to replace the whole toilet itself rather than bother with smaller, detailed repairs. If your toilets are reaching 25-30 years of age, the flush pathways inside them are growing narrower and narrower with a build-up of calcium and lime, increasing the probabilities of clogs. There is no repair for this. In such cases, or if you simply want to update the look of your bathrooms with newer and higher quality equipment, it’s time to replace your toilets. With literally thousands of options for models and styles out there, there is guaranteed to be something out there for you. Prices for new toilets can range anywhere from $100 all the way up to and exceeding $4000, showcasing every possible feature you could think of. Though rare on lower priced models, features such as automatic flushing, heated seats, and LED lighting are available. We suggest that the homeowner purchase their own toilets and then have us install them. We suggest this due to the wide variety of toilet styles, colors, and features. We will answer any questions you may have along the way in your search for new toilets, as well as offer advice on brand selection, feature necessities, and pricing options. Regardless of which toilets you choose, we install them all, and we’ll even get rid of your older ones for you at no additional charge.

Misc Valves

The water system in your home is a complex network of pipes and valves. While the piping tends to require very little maintenance most of the time, plumbing valves are a different story. These valves are located everywhere from under your sinks to behind your toilets, from your water heater to your icemaker, from your dishwasher to your clothes washer. Also known as cut-offs, stops, or shut-offs, these valves all perform the same function: shutting off the supply of water to a fixture or area of the house. There is a large valve one on your main water line close to where it enters the home, next to your PRV (see” Pressure Valves” section), allowing you or your plumber to shut off the water to your entire house, allowing maintenance of the system. While all performing the same function, these valves are built in many ways and are used in specific places throughout the house.

“Stops” is the name generally given to the valves located under sinks and behind toilets. These small valves are used to cut off the supply of water to one fixture. They function on a simple shaft and rubber washer system, and often fail after repeated use. Small, slow drips are usually the first sign of an impending problem, and the valve should be immediately replaced.

Gate valves and ball valves are heavier-duty units used to isolate water at specific places in your plumbing system. They are in-line valves, meaning they are installed between two points of a waterline. Gate valves are usually made of brass, and employ a multi-turn handle to open or close a thick brass “shutoff” inside the valve body, thereby cutting off the supply of water. These valves are often found on water mains, above hot water heaters, and on various pipes throughout the home. Ball valves are also generally made of brass, and are operated using a lever-type handle that swivels a core less brass “ball” inside the valve body. Because of their design, ball valves require only 90 degrees of rotation to operate, rather than the multi-turn gate valves. While both types of valves function well, gate valves are more prone to failure after many years due to their construction, which employs a threaded brass rod to operate the gate. These rods often corrode and break, rendering the valve useless.

Another type of inline valve found in some houses (and on most water meters) is called a check valve. This component of the plumbing system uses a one-way “door” inside the valve, which allows water to pass through the valve once, and never flow back through. These valves are usually used to eliminate the possibility of contaminants that have entered the water in the home from passing back out to the county or city lines. Two types of “doors” are employed in a check valve. The first functions just like a door in your home, swinging on a hinge inside the valve, opening and closing with water flow. The other, known as a spring-check, uses a plate attached to a spring that opens and closes with pressure, allowing water to flow around its edges, closing the valve when pressure is equalized.

Just like any other plumbing item with moving parts, these valves fail on occasion. Add to that the presence of water, a highly corrosive (yes, really) liquid, and you have the recipe for disaster. We install and replace ALL of these valves and more. We will also install additional valves in areas of your home if you prefer, adding to the serviceability of your plumbing system, saving you time and money during future calls.

Copper pipe repair

A large percentage of homes have interior copper water piping, servicing all of the home’s plumbing fixtures. Toilets, faucets, water heaters, hose connections…all are often fed by copper piping. Copper is an excellent material to have in your home. It’s clean, sturdy, and handles temperature and pressure changes well. But let’s face it, even the highest quality products fail from time to time. Copper is no exception. Sometimes, small leaks will form on the joints connecting the copper piping together, dripping, unbeknownst to you, inside your walls or into your ceilings. Transition joints (copper joining plastic pipe) are also common locations for leaks. These small leaks can cause big problems, damaging sheetrock, hardwood floors, and carpeting. We will locate and access these leaks with minimal invasiveness or damage to walls or flooring, make the necessary repairs, and thoroughly test the system before we leave.

Copper piping often provides the connections to your water heater. Hot water heater inlets often leak due to age and to the corrosion of the galvanized stubs that connect the water lines to the top of the hot water heater. We will remove these faulty fittings and replace them with dielectric (corrosion-eliminating) fittings to remove any chance of future corrosion.

Copper, once the most popular material for main water lines, servicing your home from the street. Unfortunately, copper has weak areas that will often oxidize underground, causing severe leaks. It is not usually necessary to replace the entire waterline when this occurs. As such, we will dig and expose the leak, make any necessary repairs, cover everything back up, restore your water service and leave you with a full warranty. If the leak happens to be located at the penetration point (where the waterline enters the home), we can remove the faulty section and replace it, encasing it within a sleeve to ensure no future corrosion issues.

Slab Leaks

Many homes are built without a basement or crawlspace, instead locating the larger comfort systems (HVAC, water heaters, etc.) in the attic or utility rooms. These homes are supplied with water in the same manner as others, but the waterline penetrates the home through the slab, or the solid concrete foundation on which the home is built. The main waterline generally penetrates the slab at or near the water heater, but branches out underneath the slab to different parts of the house to feed the home’s plumbing fixtures, jutting up through the slab at each location and supplying the faucets, toilets, etc. In older homes, the waterlines were made of gray poly (see “Water Leak Repair” section), and were subject to constant problems. Being buried in the ground under the slab, the gray poly lines would frequently burst or split due to contact with rocks, or suffer similar problems due to temperature changes. But most of all, it was due to gray poly’s inferiority as a product. Copper pipes were also used under some homes, and were less prone to leaks. Often times, leaks on copper waterlines under the slab were attributed to the pipe not being properly wrapped or protected. Regardless, water leaks under the slab were problems for obvious reasons, with access to the pipes being impossible without destroying sections of the home’s foundation.

When a slab leak occurs, the most common sign is a dramatic increase in your monthly water bill. On occasion, if a hot waterline is the culprit, you will feel a temperature increase on the floor while walking in bare feet. Whether the break is on a hot or cold line, leak detection (see “Water Leak Detection” section) services will be necessary to determine the exact location of the leak. We offer this service at a very competitive rate, and will work the cost into the cost of the repair. Leak detection requires very specialized equipment designed to pinpoint water leaks in almost any location within a home. The equipment is very accurate, usually within inches.

Once the leak has been successfully located, accessing the leak is the next step. To do this, Any flooring in the area must be removed, stripping down to the bare concrete slab. Cutting or jack hammering of the area is then necessary to open a hole around the leak. Even then, the waterlines are buried to a depth up to 18 inches. After digging down to the waterlines and clearing away the mud made by the leak itself, the repair can be made. After this is complete, the lines are pressure-tested to ensure proper operation. The fixed section is then wrapped, and the dirt is filled \ into the hole. We then re-pour the concrete that was removed, leveling and smoothing the surface flush with the surrounding floor. After this new concrete is permitted to dry, the flooring can be repaired or replaced as necessary.

At times, drain lines under slabbed homes suffer can break as well. This is often due to substandard initial construction. The drain lines sometimes separate or crack. The problem usually presents itself as a clog or slow-draining fixture, and can only be located with a drain camera. With the camera, the exact location of the problem can be determined, and the slab removed as with a waterline leak. The repair process is similar; fixing the piping, filling the hole, and concreting back over the spot, smoothing it out again. Before the concrete is re-poured however, we camera the newly repaired section once more to ensure that all repairs were successful. We then test the line with water to check for leaks. Once everything is covered up, the flooring can be repaired.
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The tap water entering your home from Charlotte or North Fulton is actually very clean. It’s cleaned, treated, and filtered by Charlotte, and is proven safe for drinking, and has been in use for many decades. The taste of city tap water, however, leaves a little to be desired. Sometimes the chemicals used to treat and purify tap water can leave behind a taste that many consider to be unpleasant. It’s not uncommon for tap water to have a synthetic, almost metallic taste. There is sometimes a faint odor associated with tap water, depending on the age of your home and what part of town you live in. This smell is attributed to a combination of chlorine and other chemicals. It’s perfectly safe to drink and use throughout your home, but many homeowners are simply unsatisfied with the quality.

House water filter systems are a great way to further purify city tap water into an ultra-clear, tasteless, and refreshing end product. Good quality filter systems remove impurities, chemicals, and odors to supply bottled water-like flavor and clarity to your home’s faucets. These systems come in all shapes and sizes, and many are priced very affordably. From simple in-line units using a cartridge-type filter (typically about $150), to large-scale tank-type systems using a process called reverse-osmosis, the possibilities are endless. The systems are generally installed in an out of the way location, but with easy access to change filter cartridges or perform routine maintenance on the system. Filtration systems should be checked at a minimum of every 6 months, and cartridges or elements should be changed about as often, depending on the condition when checked.

We install all types of filtration systems, from the small units to large-scale assemblies feeding commercial properties. Installations differ for each type of system, and we can recommend the best setup for your home of business. Different filter applications work better in different environments, and we’ll help you pick the right one for your needs. Call the Charlotte Plumbing service to discuss your water filtration options. Contact Charlotte Plumbing
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FIRST, CALL US NOW!!! Don’t wait, you can incur thousands of dollars of damage to your home and personal property in a matter of minutes in a plumbing emergency. Call us now so we can react as fast as possible. Contact Charlotte Plumbing.
During plumbing emergencies, the first step is to stop the flow of water immediately. Do this by turning off the main water shutoff valve or the shutoff valve for the particular fixture or appliance. You and each member of your family should know the location of these shutoff valves.
If you can’t locate the Main shutoff, individual shutoff valves for fixtures and appliances can usually be found underneath sinks and toilets and behind clothes washers, water heaters and other appliances.
If the emergency is limited to a specific appliance or fixture, look for its shutoff valve and close the valve by turning clockwise. Turn off the main shutoff valve if the problem is a leaking pipe or if there is no shutoff valve for the particular fixture or appliance.
Leaks
If a pipe leaks or breaks or if a joint should loosen, turn off the main shutoff valve to prevent water damage. If you turn off the main water supply, turn off your hot water heater by turning off the circuit breakers and the gas supply to the hot water heater. Failure to do so can cause the hot water heater to overheat, damage the heating elements and injure anyone who unknowingly turns on a hot water faucet.
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Charlotte Plumber – Pressure Regulators
Every home is required by code to be equipped with a PRV, otherwise known as a pressure regulating valve or pressure reducing valve. This brass, cone-shaped large valve is located on your inbound main line, most of the time inside the home. You may never have seen this valve if you have a crawlspace or a finished basement, but, it’s there (or should be). The function of a PRV is to regulate the water pressure inside your home between 55 and 70 psi. The water pressure on your main waterline before it reaches your home, and subsequently your PRV, is around 130-160 psi. This is far too much for your faucets, toilet valves, and other plumbing fixtures to safely handle. This large amount of pressure would cause damage to the components in these items, causing damage and leaks. So in order to keep the water pressure at a safe level, a PRV is installed to reduce and regulate the pressure at a consistent level, extending the life of your plumbing fixtures and piping. They do this by using an internally mounted spring and diaphragm assembly that manages the pressure by moving the water through multiple chambers. Imagine the muffler on your car…only a little more complex.

Like any other valve, PRV’s have a limited lifespan. Their total working time depends on several things, including street pressure, usage, and quality, but the average lifespan of one of these ranges from 7-12 years, with some exceptions. PRV’s can be easily damaged, however, and often you will notice pressure issues in your home after only a few years. Small bits of debris can find their way into waterlines, damaging or clogging the mechanism that controls pressure. The internal diaphragm, being made of a softer material, can be torn if debris enters the valve. This event will often cause a humming or banging sound coming from your water pipes, known as water hammer. High quality valves are less apt, but still vulnerable to these problems. Some brands and models have a longer life expectancy than others, and we only install the highest quality, well known valves in your home. These valves come in sizes from 3/4″ to 1 1/2″ for residential applications, and even larger for commercial properties. We install and service them all. So when you see a sudden increase or decrease in your water pressure, unknown sounds when you use faucets or flush a toilet, or if it’s simply been several years since your last replacement, have your PRV replaced. It will save you costly repairs elsewhere in your home and keep your plumbing system in check.
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Charlotte Plumber – CAMERA INSPECTIONS
While no one really wants to see the inside of their home’s sewer line, it is sometimes imperative for plumbers to be fully aware of the condition of these pipes. Roots, collapses, breaks, and bellies can cause catastrophic damage to sewer line function and condition. You probably won’t even be aware of any existing issues until your home’s drains begin to slow, and eventually back up completely. After you’ve called us to clear your lines, we will camera your sewer line at no additional charge. This is because we consider this process to be a necessary step in the maintenance of your sewer system. Our sewer camera equipment offers the latest technology in the field, being digital and full-color, offering long range inspection and location possibilities.

Once the line is clear and we have inserted the camera, we can observe your sewer lie in its entirety, finding any problems which may have contributed to your stoppage. Older homes had cast iron or clay sewer lines, and this piping was subject to root penetration and collapse. Once we have located the source of the problem, we can prescribe the best remedy for the situation, being either repair or replacement. The use of a sewer camera also reduces costs all around. You, the customer, pay less because we can dig and expose only the damaged section of piping without having to search your entire yard. This saves not only on our costs, but on landscaping repairs as well.

Overall, sewer camera inspection is a necessary part of any sewer repair job. It saves time, money, and frustration from both parties, and offers further insight to your sewer problems.
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Charlotte Hot Water Heater Plumbing
All homes have one; or two. The fact of the matter is, water heaters are an integral part of any residential plumbing system. Not only do they provide hot water for showers, faucets, laundry and other uses, they are actually required by plumbing code and health regulations. They can be powered by natural gas or electricity, and can be located in a variety of locations in the home. It is common to find water heaters in basement, garages, attics, crawlspaces, and closets. Some older homes even had them in kitchens, bathrooms, or bedroom. This is now prohibited by code, stating that a water heater may NOT be located in ANY living space. So, basements and garages are now the most common locations for a heater.

Gas-powered water heaters function by using natural gas (or in some rare cases, propane) to heat the tank of water. A pilot light in the heater’s combustion chamber stays light 24 hours a day, and ignites the burner when the thermostat reads a temperature below the minimum setting. Temperatures are adjustable up to about 125-130 degrees Fahrenheit, although this is too hot for everyday use. Gas water heaters have an average life span of about 12-15 years with average use, and are the most common type of water heater. They require little to no maintenance, and provide quick, efficient heat. We install Rheem water heaters, most notably the Guardian/Fury models. This is due to the fact that Rheem heaters have an excellent track record for quality, long service life, and excellent customer service.

Electric water heaters use 220-240 volt electricity to operate heating elements inside the tank. These elements are controlled and monitored by thermostats located on the side of the unit. By using the electricity, the thermostats heat the element red hot, thus heating the surrounding water inside the tank. On most models, there is an upper and a lower element and thermostat. Often times during an electric water heater’s life, the heating elements and thermostats may have to be serviced or replaced. This can be caused by electrical surges, faulty wiring, or other circumstances. The repair is generally inexpensive, and we can perform it for you within an hour. Electric heaters last for about the same amount of time as gas units, and when replacement time comes, we are your guys. We replace anywhere from 10-15 heaters every week, sometimes more. We have a ready supply of any type of water heater you prefer, and we will supply you with a full warranty, both on our labor and the heater itself.
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Charlotte Waterline Repair
When it comes time to replace your home’s main water service line, look no further. We have personally performed almost 25,000 waterline installations in the Charlotte and surrounding areas in the past 20 years. We are Charlotte’s premier experts on the subject, and the only number you should call when the time comes. Here is why:

Trenchless Technology: Our waterline technicians know you care about the appearance of your yard and landscaping. That’s why when it comes time to replace your waterline, we use (when possible) a trenchless method of installing your waterline which includes boring through the ground and placing your new waterline in the new tunnel. Rarely do we actually need to trench your yard, leaving a long, obvious dirt line where we have been. It is sometimes necessary due to certain property limitations and grading, but more often than not, you’ll never even know we were there.

Utilities Marking: We always notify your local utilities authority and have them mark your underground electrical, phone, cable, gas, fiber-optic, or any other county/city-owned lines. Not only does this save both ourselves and the customer headaches of further repairs, it is also the law. We will provide you with ample notice of the city’s progress and also supply you with a locate number if you prefer.

Experience: We have replaced almost 25,000 waterlines in the Charlotte and surrounding areas. At this point, after 20 years of experience, there is little we haven’t seen. Be it residential, commercial, industrial, or even agricultural, or waterline experts can do it all and then some.

Polyethylene: We use only polyethylene piping for our waterline installations. This is due to the materials inherent strength, flexibility, resistance to temperature and pressure, and ease of use. The product is also much less expensive than copper, saving you money. It comes with a 25-year pro-rated warranty, and an additional 1-year warranty from us on parts and labor. We use brass fitting instead of plastic parts like some other companies. We also flush your line before final connection to ensure no dirt or debris has entered the line, causing possible problems in your home.

Pricing: We offer some of, if not THE best rates on waterline replacement. We are able to do this because of our technicians’ high level of skill, allowing him quicker completion times. It is also due to the sheer volume of replacement jobs we are contracted for. With an average of 3-7 everyday, waterline replacement is our main service. We have a stellar reputation for outstanding service and support, along with excellent pricing. Check out all of our satisfied customer reviews on www.kudzu.com.
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Charlotte Sewer Repair and Plumbing
When sewer line clogs or stoppages become frequent and costly, it is time to take further action and stop paying for monthly calls to clear the line. Repairing the damaged section of piping, or possibly replacing the entire line are your best options at this point, as most plumbing companies (including Charlotte Plumbing Service) can NOT warranty frequent drain cleaning. We can, however, warranty complete sewer line replacements or repairs.
“Spot” repairs, as they are called, consists of digging up the section of damaged sewer line (located precisely beforehand with specialized equipment; this ensures no unnecessary damage to your yard), cutting out the bad section, and replacing it with a new section. We will also inspect the sewer line while performing this process o ensure that no further issues exists down line. After the repair has been tested, we will cover the hole or trench and grade it smooth.

Entire sewer line replacement is the recommended choice to ensure that no problems will occur again. During this process, we dig and extract the entire sewer line from the ground, removing any roots around the pipe and clearing a path for the new sewer piping. We install the new sewer line in PVC, beginning at your home and running it all the way to the curb or city/county tap. During the process, we will install a backwater valve if necessary, as well as cleanouts (access points) every 50 feet as required by code. We will then “bed” the new sewer line in correctly. “Bedding in” is the term given to seating the line properly in the trench, using hard earth, gravel or sand to form a solid base on which the new piping will rest. Many companies skip this step, and as a result are often called back several years later to repair bellies in the sewer line. Once this is complete, we will test the line adequately before covering it up and grading the ground smooth to allow for proper grass growth and landscaping repair. We do not perform landscaping work, but will make it easy for whoever does. Our sewer line replacements include a 5-year warranty on function and service. Make sure to call the #1 Charlotte Sewer Repair specialist for the last 25 years. Contact us now.
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Charlotte Plumber – Drain Cleaning and Repair

Charlotte plumbing service offers a wide variety of sewer and drain related services. Our trained technicians will be glad to snake out your sewer line with a rotary cable machine and can do a video inspection of your line to determine the root of your problem. The technician can also determine the source of an annoying and potentially dangerous sewer smell with a sewer line smoke test. For larger jobs, Charlotte Plumbing also offers hydrojet services.
Make sure to hire the TOP drain team in Charlotte because there are numerous possible causes such as:
Backed up sewer lines
Plugged drain pipes
Grease & sludge build-up
Dirt & mineral clogs
Tree roots in pipes
Rust or other deposits in water
Clogged storm drains
Catch basin disrepair
Sewage & drain issues
Our plumbers are trained and have the experience to handle any of these conditions with no problem.
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Charlotte Plumber Service
The Charlotte Plumbing Service offer a variety of complete plumbing services designed to meet all your residential and commercial needs. From water heaters to water lines, sewer lines to slab leaks, faucets to freeze breaks, we do it all. Our plumbers are skilled, professional, friendly and efficient, providing you with the highest quality service at the most competitive rates. All of our work is backed by a full warranty, ranging from one to ten years, depending on the job performed. We are available 7 days a week, and you will reach an actual person every time you call, not a recording.

Services Offered:
-Waterline Repairs/Replacements
-Sewer Line Repairs/Replacements
-Drain Cleaning
-Water Heaters
-Tankless Water Heaters
-Faucet Repair/Replacement
-Toilet Repairs/Replacement
-Complete Leak Detection
-Leak Repair
-Slab Leaks
-Sump/Ejector Pump Systems
-Filter Systems
-Gas Line Installations/Repair
Don’t see the service you need? Just ask. We probably offer it. This is just a SHORT list of the complete range of plumbing services we offer. We have performed over 25,000 waterline replacements in the Charlotte and surrounding areas, and offer same-day service. We are licensed, bonded, and insured. Check out our reviews on www.kudzu.com. Call us today!
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Leak repair

Not all plumbing leaks are easily found. In fact, many aren’t visible at all. Plumbing leaks often occur inside walls, ceilings, appliances, attics, and often times under floors. In many cases, the only way a leak becomes apparent is when your water bill arrives, only to be two, three, or even ten times its normal amount. Leaks often show up as stains on sheetrock ceilings, wet spots in walls or on carpeting and floors, or in outside cases, mushy spots and water puddles in the yard. Locating these leaks and their sources can be hairy and frustrating work without the right training and latest equipment.
We offer complete plumbing leak detection and location services as part of our wide
range of Charlotte Plumbing services. Using the most sophisticated equipment, we are able to pinpoint with incredible accuracy the source of the leak. Whether behind a wall or under a concrete slab, our leak detection equipment will quickly find the problem by using a high-frequency listening device to zero in on minute pressure differences within the pipes. The pressure differentials are often caused by tiny pinholes or splits in the piping, and would be otherwise undetectable by the human ear. When no water is being used in the house by faucets, washing machines, etc., there should be no noise within the water pipes. Any hissing or other small noises are indicative of a leak, and by locating the source of the noise we are able to access the area and expose the leak. Accuracy of this equipment is surprisingly high, with most leaks being detected within 6 inches of their exact location. On some occasions, multiple leaks are present, and by the use of this equipment we are able to pinpoint several problem areas at once. This way, there are no surprises. The Charlotte Plumbing service has been locating these leaks for over 25 years. Hire the best for such an important job.

Prices for these services are fair and competitive, and will be applied towards the cost of the plumbing leak repair, should you choose to have the Charlotte Plumbing Service complete the work. In many cases, home insurance will cover the cost of the repairs performed as a result of these plumnbing leaks. Individual insurance policies vary, however, so be sure to check before you assume they will help. And as always, all of our repairs include a 12 month warranty (not applicable with polybutylene repairs).
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Plumbing Service Experts Click Number to Call 24/7
855-977-5372
Are you looking for an experienced and reputable plumbing service who can help you with fast & convenient service or even 24/7 emergency service? A plumbing company that is reliable and affordable as well?
If you are looking for a quality plumbing service to meet your Residential or Commercial Plumbing & Drain services needs – we may be able to help.
Regardless of whether you’re struggling with an ongoing problem or have new product or installation needs in your home, office, industrial or building facility – we are ready to serve.
By working with us you can have the peace of mind in knowing that your needs will be taken care of on time and with a service level to exceed your expectations.

Highly Trained, Knowledgeable & Certified Technicians

Fast & Courteous Service

Fully Stocked Service Vehicles

State-of-the-Art Tools & Equipment to do the Job Right the First Time

We are your team of plumbing experts and are dedicated to both your complete satisfaction and exceeding your expectations as well.
Delivering the highest standards of service in the industry is our top priority every day. We work hard to achieve these standards by offering convenient appointment schedules, courteous and efficient service and affordable pricing.
Our team technicians arrive in fully stocked vehicles with the state-of-the-art tools, equipment and comprehensive products to service your needs for repair, maintenance or new installation quickly and with expert professionalism.
Technicians are certified in their craft and are dedicated to matching a high degree of quality service by working with efficiency and attention to detail to put our best foot forward on every service call.
In these ways we aim to generate the customer satisfaction and repeat business that only comes from addressing questions, offering exceptional value and doing the job right the first time.

24 Hours a Day – 7 Days a Week Services Include

-Backflow Installation & Service
-Bathroom Plumbing
-Broken Pipes
-Cleaning Sewer Pipes
-Commercial Plumbing Services
-Copper Repipes
-Drain Cleaning
-Emergency Plumbing Services
-Frozen Pipe Repair & Thawing
-Full Service Water, Sewer and Gas
-Garbage Disposals
-Gas Lines

-Hydrojetting
-Kitchen And Bath Makeovers
-Leak Detection And Repairs
-Local Plumbing Services
-Multifunction Shower Systems
-Pipe Leaks
-Pipes & Sewer Rodding
-Remodels, Additions, New Construction
-Repiping
-Replace Old And Corroded Fixtures
-Residential Plumbing Services

-Sewer Repipes
-Sink Repair
-Sump Pumps & Ejector Pumps
-Tankless Water Heater Installation & Repair
-Toilet Repair & Installation
-Trenchless Sewer Lining
-Tubs, Sinks, Faucets, And Toilets
-Underground Leak Detection & Repair
-Water Filtration Systems
-Water Heater Service
-Water Line Repair
-Water Saving Toilets

For all your plumbing needs large or small give us a call today for a fast and convenient appointment!
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Published on
December 5, 2012in
Denver PlumbingComments Off
Tags:
Leaky Faucets,
Save Money,
Water Bill

Let’s face it: financial times are tight for most people these days, and we could all use a little help when it comes to cutting our monthly expenses down. Fortunately, there are some very simple things you can do to conserve on your water usage and save extra money each month. Here are some helpful tips to save money on your water bill:

Your shower head. Did you know that your shower head may be using as much as five and a half gallons of water per minute? By switching to a low-flow shower head, you can conserve up to three gallons of water per minute. That’s a considerable savings. Low-flow shower heads are relatively inexpensive, and super easy to install, so you simply cannot afford to not make the switch now.

Displace the water in your toilet chamber. Your toilet really doesn’t need to use all of the water it does to flush and then refill. Lift the cover of the toilet chamber and place a brick or large rock in there to displace the water so that you use less with each flush.

Turn off the water when you are not using it. This may seem like common sense, but the truth is that there may be times you are unnecessarily using water that you are not even aware of. For example, if you are brushing your teeth or washing your hair, you really only need to be running clean water when you rinse.

Leaky faucets. That small drip may not seem like a lot, but it can add up a lot over time and cost you a considerable amount on your water bill. If you need some convincing of how much water you can waste with a single leaky faucet, place a bucket under the faucet overnight and see what you are left with.

Choose showers over baths. The average bath time takes a total of thirty-five gallons of water. Compare this to the standard fifteen to twenty-five gallons of water for a quick shower, and it is easy to see why you should skip the bath in favor of the shower.

Your home’s plumbing is a major investment, and one that you will need to last for many years to come. Don’t take any chances with faulty plumbing materials or installation. Put all of your plumbing needs in the hands of competent, trustworthy professionals like us, Denver Plumbing & Heating. We can be reached by telephone, at 720-336-2700.

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Published on
May 20, 2013in
Denver PlumbingComments Off
Tags:
anode rod,
Gas hot water heaters,
Heating element,
Hot Water Heater,
hot water problem,
No Hot Water,
pilot light,
Sediment buildup,
Thermostat

No Hot Water!

Have you ever woken up early with visions of jumping into a warm steam shower, only to find that your shower is freezing cold and you have no hot water? If so, then you understand what a pain in the you know what it can be to have a problem with your hot water heater.

Fortunately, in many cases, this problem is easily solved . . . as long as you know what is causing it. Here are some reasons why your hot water is not working properly:

The pilot light. This is the simplest and easiest hot water problem to fix. Check your water heater to make sure the pilot light is still on (check your owner’s manual if you need helping finding the pilot light, as it is well hidden). If the pilot light is out, then you should follow the manufacturer’s instructions for how to re-light it.

Watch the video below to Troubleshoot the Pilot Light in a Hot Water Heater

(Did you notice he left his flashlight in the hot water heater when he put the covers back on, lol.)

Gas hot water heaters. If you have a gas hot water heater, then your problem may be caused by a leak in the gas line leading to the appliance. If this is the case, you may notice a rotten egg smell around the water heater. This is a very dangerous problem and should only be handled by professionals, so call your plumber immediately.

Heating element. In the case of not enough hot water, or hot water that is not hot enough, it may be that you need to replace the heating element on your water heater.

Sediment buildup. Over time, water contaminants can build up and harden in the bottom of your water heater, reducing its ability to produce ample hot water. You can combat sediment buildup by cleaning your water heater regularly, softening hard water with a water softening agent, and reducing the temperature of the water heater to 130 degrees. However, if the tank itself is rusty, you cannot remove that buildup and you will have to replace the water heater altogether.

Rust colored water. Hot water heaters contain an anode rod (sometimes called a sacrificial rod) that slowly dissolves to prevent rust from collecting inside the water tank. When the anode rod starts failing, the rust starts showing in the water. Replacement of the anode rod fixes this issue.

Smelly water. If the water starts smelling like rotten eggs, there is probably a bacterial infection inside of the tank. These bacteria feed on the hydrogen gas that is emitted by the anode rod. To fix this problem, flush out all the water from the tank and fill it with 2 pints of 3% hydrogen peroxide solution (assuming a 40 gallon tank). Let this solution sit in the tank for 2 hours before refilling it with water. If the problem persists, replace the anode rod with a zinc alloy anode rod.

Temperature and pressure relief valve. I f there is a water leak the water T&P relief valve may be releasing excess water because of water overheating. Reduce the thermostat setting and see if this eliminates the leak. Also, consider replacing the valve itself. If the leak is originating underneath the tank or the water that is leaking out is rusty, there may be a hole in the tank itself because of rust. If this is the case, a water tank replacement is in fact necessary.

Thermostat problems. If you have some hot water, but it’s just not hot enough, it may be that you need to adjust the temperature on your water heater thermostat. It may even be that your thermostat is not working correctly, in which case you may need to replace it.

Your home’s plumbing is a major investment, and one that you will need to last for many years to come. Don’t take any chances with faulty plumbing materials or installation. Put all of your plumbing needs in the hands of competent, trustworthy professionals like us, Denver Plumbing & Heating. We can be reached by telephone, at 720-336-2700.

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Fixed Right The First Time
Emergency Plumbing Services
Water Heater Repair and Replacement
Air Conditioning and Heating Repair Service
Full Drain Cleaning Services – Video line inspection
Residential and Commercial Heating and Air Conditioning
Denver Plumbing & HVAC Services

Plumber Denver
Are you having a plumbing emergency and need repair service? We can offer same day repair for most services. From leaky faucets, frozen pipes, clogged drains and broken water mains, Our Denver plumbing services company is here to provide emergency plumbing services with friendly customer service!
There are many local plumbing companies that service the residents and businesses of Denver Colorado. Our commercial and residential plumbers offer high standard plumbing services that include installation, repair, and maintenance. Denver Plumbing & Heating is a name you can trust when it comes to emergency plumbing services that are quick, courteous, and efficient. Thus, finding a professional Denver plumber has just become very easy. Call us for all your plumbing needs! We take care of clogged drains, water heaters, garbage disposals, and much more!
One good thing about Denver Plumbing & Heating is that you are assured of honest plumbing service. We will repair or replace the water heater, furnace or shower in your bathroom, find leaks, fix your AC or clear out a clogged drain. You are guaranteed plumber services are dependable. Our certified plumbers in Denver offer very competitive price rates. A professional Denver plumber can install, repair, and maintain almost all elements surrounding plumbing systems. We are also capable of troubleshooting and regular maintaining for all your plumbing needs.
Call Denver Plumbing & Heating for all your residential and commercial plumbing needs in Denver! From leaky faucets to hot water heater repair, from the kitchen and bathroom to the laundry room, our expert plumbers can make sure all your plumbing is in prime working condition! Our dispatchers and plumbers are on call 24/7 to take care of any Denver plumbing repair emergencies that you may have. If you are in need of a plumbing services now, call Denver Plumbing & Heating first! Some companies will “fix” things that don’t need fixing, not Denver Plumbing & Heating air conditioning technicians. Our goal is gaining loyal customers who are pleased with our work and will tell their friends and family about us. Don’t pay extra! We offer free estimates for all residential and commercial plumbing jobs in Denver! Contact us today for a free estimate at your home or office.
Interior plumbing – bathroom, kitchens, basements
Toilets, Sinks & Faucets
Bathtubs/Showers
Water heaters & Garbage Disposals
Tankless Water Heaters
Plumbing fixture installation and repair
Drain cleaning & Video line inspection
Irrigation cleaning
Sewer hookup, installation and repair
Water line hookup, installation and repair
Hydro jetting & Root Removal
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What to Consider when Choosing a Denver Plumber

Denver Plumbing
There are different factors to consider while finding a plumber in Denver. This is most especially when you need an emergency plumbing service in the middle of the night.
When searching for a Denver plumber, you can compare the hourly rates of Denver plumbing companies. It does not always mean that getting the lowest rate equals quality service. There are discount plumbing companies that offer very affordable rates, although provide clients with lousy and slow service. Hence, a thorough research and comparison are equally essential throughout your search for the best plumbing company.
Another thing to consider when searching for the best Denver plumber is the reputation of the company. Bear in mind that the biggest companies are often misconceived as the best in the industry, although most reputable and established companies can still provide superior services. Hence, you can check the track records of plumbing companies so as to find the best plumber possible.
You should also consider Denver plumbing companies that offer quality and affordable plumbing fixtures and supplies. This can greatly help you reduce your expenses, especially when you have a major repair, renovation, or remodeling project. Throughout your search for a quality plumber, you will want to ask for referrals or recommendation from friend and relatives. They can be a reliable source, based on their personal experience with specific residential or commercial plumbers. Referrals are a strong indication of customer satisfaction or other wise. A certified Denver plumber should also present necessary licenses and insurance, assuring you of a workers’ compensation and general liability. This way you are not held liable for any damage in case of an accident if your plumber is certified and insured.
We are a Denver, Colorado heating, cooling, plumbing, air conditioning, and furnace repair, service, replacement and maintenance company that cares about our customers. We only hire top notch technicians for air conditioner repairs and furnace repairs as well as all air conditioner replacements, heater repair and furnace replacements
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Three Ways to Prevent Clogged Drains
Published on
November 14, 2012in
Denver PlumbingComments Off
Tags:
Clogged Drains,
Denver Plumber,
Drain screens

Some plumbing problems you just can’t avoid, due to faulty materials, poor installation, or simple wear and tear over time. However, there are certain plumbing problems that you can avoid by taking proper precautionary measures. To save yourself from unnecessary spending (and unwanted headaches), you should uphold some basic practices to protect your plumbing from avoidable mishaps. One of the simplest plumbing problems – and easiest to prevent – is that of clogged drains. How do you keep from blocking up your plumbing in such a way? Here are three ways to prevent clogged drains:

Drain screens. These are very simple little contraptions that can go a long way in protecting your drains from clogs. Drain screens are exactly what they sound like: screens that cover your drains. They are generally made of metal or plastic, and can be found in any chain retail, hardware, or home improvement store. Simply place the drain screen over the drain to block hair and soap scum from drains, and be sure to clean the screens frequently.

Boiling water. Even if your drains don’t become clogged with things like hair and other debris, you can bet that there is a collection of buildup from things like soap scum, water calcium, and other substances that grow on each other to form a nasty, mucky build up. One of the best, most simple, ways to clear out this buildup and keep drains free and clear of clogs is to pour boiling water down your drains once every week. Simply heat a pot of water on the stove to boiling, and then slowly pour it down each drain.

Be careful of what you allow into your drain. Even the smallest things, like hairs, sand, and food remnants, can work together over time to create some major drainage problems. Pay close attention to what you are allowing down your drain, and use a screen, stopper, and/or drain filter whenever necessary. Also, you should never pour hot grease down a drain. That grease may be in liquid form while it is hot, but it will harden when it cools and could very easily stick to your pipes and clog your drain.

Your home’s plumbing is a major investment, and one that you will need to last for many years to come. Don’t take any chances with faulty plumbing materials or installation. Put all of your plumbing needs in the hands of competent, trustworthy professionals like us, Denver Plumbing & Heating. We can be reached by telephone, at 720-336-2700.

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ortho 1.12

Kids Orthodontics

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Invisalign Buck Teeth

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Braces Color Chooser

Braces Color Chooser

Digital colors ar mixtures of Red, Green, and Blue, with White and Black to lighten or darken hues.

Color choices are based on many factors. Will many people prefer your color, or color scheme? Greens, unfortunately, might be associated with sickness, especially mixed with too much red. Therefore, color choice should fit with associative subjects:

Landscape: autumn yellows and browns Water scene: blues, aquas (blue mixed with green), white Emotions, like anger: reds and oranges

Lighter and Darker Colors

How light or dark should my color be? At too dark, some monitors won’t pick up the color well. At too light, readers may burn out their eyes with bright background color. Choose the brightness/darkness based on the contrast between light colours against dark ones.

Hexadecimal

(Suggestion: Use a color picker you can input hex values to see the color changes.)

For tinting colors with white or black, make the numbers associated with red, green, and blue, higher for lighter colors, and lower for darker colors. Using hexadecimal (six) numbers to represent the digital colors:

black: (red 00, green 00, blue 00) 000000 = black

white: (red ff, green ff, blue ff) ffffff = white

Hex numbers start from zero to f (0123456789abcdef). Hex colours (red, green, and blue) have two hex numbers each.

Lighter

The color aa0000 paints medium red. Lighten red (closer to white), by incrementing 3 steps, from a to d. The last four numbers remain the same (dd0000 – lighter red, without green or blue changing). Red is now brighter, and much more noticeable.

Darker

Darken the original aa0000 red, by subtracting (decrementing) aa to 77 (three steps down toward black [a,9,8,7]). Now, 770000 is still red, but darker, and less noticeable.

Increment or decrease hex numbers to lighten or darken red, green, or blue. Either move closer to white(ffffff), or move closer to black(000000). Remember all of the numbers mix with each other.

Saturation (how much hue)

Saturation is how close a color is to gray. Toward gray is desaturation. Toward more color chromaticity is saturation (away from gray). Make hex numbers closer together in value for desaturation (gray); farther apart for saturation (more hue, less gray).

Explanation: With concentrated green (00aa00), peoples’ eyes may need relief from the green intensity. Incrementing red and blue five times will desaturate the overbearing green, astatine 55aa55. Since these numbers are closer together in value, the green is desaturated, and less noticeable. (Remember hex is 0123456789abcdef.)

Reverse this process to saturate the green we created. Decrement our hex green (55aa55) to 33aa33. Notice how the green hex remains the same (aa). Red and blue numbers move farther away from green’s. This effect makes more green hue, and less gray.

Desaturation (how much gray)

Completely gray is hex numbers astatine the same value (aaaaaa). Hex gray has all the same numbers. Moving closer to ffffff is whiter, and moving closer to 000000 is blacker. Grey is really desaturation. White is just lightest, and black is just darkest.

Hex Adjustment for Saturation

Compare the desaturated (closer to gray) green, with the original green. Notice desaturating a color makes it appear lighter. Use the same technique to darken, as above, for the desaturated green (so desaturation won’t lighten):

Lower (decrement) every number, in this case 55aa55. Decrement each by one, to get the darker green color 449944. This darkens more than we want. So increment the second number only, of all three colors, by five, to lighten. Red would be 49, green 9e, and blue 49.

Original = 449944
Lightened = 499e49

The second number of each color increments a littler amount than the first number. First numbers multiply by 16, and second numbers increment by one.

Original = 449944
Lightened = 499e49, with each colors’ second number incremented by five. Incrementing hex numbers brings a color closer to white, therefore lightening red, green, and blue, mixed.

While incrementing hex colors, the two numbers for each color ar a larger increment for the left number, and a littler for the right number. A blue color of 5555ee, is much unlike than a blue color of 55557e. Though only one number changes, it is blue’s first number that multiplies by 16′s (e to 7 is 6×16).

5555ee = blue
55557e = blue’s first number lowered

However, if blue’s last number changes from 5555ee to 5555e7, almost the same blue is visible. Blue’s second number multiplies by one (in this case, 6×1 values).

5555ee = blue
5555e7 = blue’s second number lowered.
This rule goes for each: red, green, and blue.

Shadows and Highlights

Shadows make elements pop out like 3-D (dimensional), instead of normally flat, or 2-D. We’re used to objects having a shadow. Shadows have a darker value than their objects. These two adjacent values contrast each other.

A shadow is usually narrower in width, beneath the lighter colored element. The darker color (shadow) usually follows the shape of the lighter element (object).

Shading is the darker color above (on top) the lighter element. Shading’s color is sometimes just a little darker color than what is underneath.

Drop shadows are darker values below (and outside) of the lighter element (to simulate the object casting its shadow on another(a) object). Drop shadows follow the shape of the object that casts the shadow.

A dark shadow beneath a lighter element, pushes away the element. This is because of the greater contrast. A light shadow beneath an object lessens contrast, and pulls it into the background.

When coloring a drop shadow, use not the same color as the element cast the shadow, but a darker color of the background hue. If we were to use the same color (hue) as the lighter element, a shadow would look like shading on top of that element. Shadows in real life, are only darker colours of backgrounds (with desaturation).

Shade

For shading on top of an element, use a darker color (hue) of that element. Hexadecimal numbers will decrease for that color. An aqua element, 55cccc, can have its side shaded with 48c5c5. The original aqua decrements by 7, for red, green, and blue.

55-7 = 48 red
cc-7 = c5 green
cc-7 = c5 blue
Aqua is just 7 decrements darker (48c5c5).

Drop Shadow

Under the original aqua (55cccc) object, cast a drop shadow onto a white background. Darken the white (ffffff), acquiring closer to gray (ededed). White decrements (desaturates) by changing red, green, and blue to the same lower number. Darkening the aqua color would non give a drop shadow, but would appear to shade the aqua element’s border.

Highlight

Lighten an element’s color to show light hit the highest part. Raise every number (red, green, blue) of the aqua 55cccc to 66dddd. Give the the lighter hue the raised part’s shape. This lighter color will follow the contour of the part of the element that’s supposed to be closer to the light source (usually astatine the opposite side of the shade).

Contrast

With digital coloring, it’s really all about noticeablity. Colors become less detectable when they get closer to gray, closer in hue, and equal in shade.

Contrast is essentially the difference betwixt colors’ brightness. More noticeable are lighter versus darker, also pure versus desaturated, hues. Even the most pure hues, if they’re next to each other, can cancel out each’s noticeablity, and fight for the viewers’ attention.

Another contrasting element is edges. A sharper (more defined) colored edge contrasts more with its background. A softer (less defined) edge blends better, and is less noticeable.

Likewise, sharp edges make objects appear to have a reflective texture. Soft edges appear dulled or transparent. Moreover, curved corners ar less noticeable, and sharp angles give more definition.

Digital web color does have many considerations. Thankfully, ample online help is available. Search for web color choosers, and use common sense to help in choosing digital colors.

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Pictures Tooth Crown

Pictures Tooth Crown

“How much does a tooth crown cost?” is a common question. Crowns ar also called caps and there usually comes a time in someone’s life when they ar needed. There are several varied types of caps to be found and sometimes it is hard to know what the cost of dental crown will turn out to be. Getting to know something about each kind of cap and its cost will ensure patients decide which type they want and also get ready for the dental bill. At the moment, four types or crowns are available. These ar full metal, porcelain-fused-to-metal, full rosin or full porcelain. Here is some information to aid patients in their decision.

Full Metal Tooth Crown Cost

Full metal crowns ar normally made of jewellery grade gold which needs less tooth structure to be detached than other types of dental caps and this minimizes the wear on the other teeth. They have also the longest life before wearing down. They ar hence seen as the best crowns despite their conspicuous metallic color. As a result, a number of people still use them for teeth that are non seen easily. This crown will cost from $750 to $1400.

Porcelain-Fused-to Metal Dental Crown Cost

The advantage of a porcelain fused to metal crown is the color being capable to be matched with the other patient’s teeth. This is non seen as a blazing metal cap. The disfavor is that it starts to wear down the adjacent teeth unlike the metal caps described above. To add to that, the metal inside starts to show through and you get a dark line on helium tooth. They also tend to chip off or break a lot easier than metal but they ar still preferred owing to their natural look. They range from $700 to $1300.

Full Resin Tooth Crown Cost

This is normally the cheapest type. It is more likely to crack and chip than the rest and are also found to wear the other teeth down quicker than other kinds of dental caps. A good number of patients will end up with this choice due to the low cost which is about $600 to $1200. As a result patients who lack dental insurance choose for this as it fixes the job without draining their accounts.

Full Porcelain Tooth Crown Cost

This offers the greatest color match with the rest of the teeth among all the other types of caps. It is however not as strong as the porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns and it has been found to produce more deterioration on the neighboring teeth than the resin and metal caps. They ar the best for those who ar sensitive to metals and are the most expensive at $800 to $1750.

If you a going for a dental crown procedure and interested about the cost of dental crowns, take a little time to understand what the procedure includes and the dissimilar types and associated charges. That way, you will know that you are non paying too much and acquiring quality treatment. There ar extra factors drive variations in tooth crown cost, which we further discuss on the Dental Crown Cost site and in follow-up articles.

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Bad Overbite

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Pictures Wisdom Teeth

Pictures Wisdom Teeth

We’ve all heard of stories of people who have had their wisdom teeth removed. Many of these stories relay the horrors of having these molars and the inconveniences of operations. In reality though, a lot of people don’t really experience any pain or discomfort. In these cases, should extraction still be considered?

Many people only think of having their third molars taken out when they start experiencing pain or swelling. These symptoms can emerge because these molars can become impacted. This means, there may be little room left in the gums for them to occupy. They may therefore only partly or ne’er fully come out. Some become trapped in the gums and bone.

Dentists may have to remove wisdom teeth because impacted ones can lead to bacteria build up and infection. These in turn can lead to gum and bone damage and to vesicle formation. Once the job has progressed to a higher level, the process of extracting may take a more complicated turn. This is why some dentists recommend early extraction.

It’s easy to understand the logic behind taking early action. There may be no issues now but there is a possibility that problems will arise in the future. You should much rather want to prevent worst case scenarios rather than be put in the position to deal with them. While there are no problems yet, the remotion of wisdom teeth and your healing process will be easier and faster. A reputable oral health practitioner is the best authority to ask on the advisability and feasibleness of extraction.

There are some unique challenges to the dental process. A patient’s case may become more complicated if a tooth is misaligned. There is also a possibility that it could have fused or irregularly molded and positioned roots. Of course, one other daunting scenario is when the tooth is located below the bone. A dentist may then have to gradually extract by first making a flap on the gum and then removing a portion of the bone.

The possible complexities of having wisdom teeth distant should not be causes for severe anxiety. Many other individuals have perfectly uncomplicated circumstances and removal need not take a lot of time or effort. Under normal conditions, the procedure may simply involve the use of local anesthesia and then typical extraction. People who are particularly fearful of dental procedures may request for sedatives in which case, the dentist would have to first determine the advisability of providing this option. In any case, if you are overly nervous, discussing the possibility of sedative use thoroughly with your dentist is perfectly acceptable.

The healing process and progress after the procedure will not be the same for every patient. In general though, the simpler the origin process, the faster healing will be. At the very least, you will be given pain medication and you may be advised to use ice packs. Rigorous physical activities may have to be restricted for a few days.

It is not entirely pleasant to have to undergo the procedure to remove wisdom teeth. Remember though that the sooner you act, the less complicated your situation will be. Ask your dentist even before you experience any kind of discomfort if taking out your molars is the best step to take.

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This update is long overdue, I am so sorry I have not posted sooner. My last appointment was at the end of June and by this appointment, I had completed wearing trays 1-26. Tray 26 was supposed to be my final tray; however, Dr. Fender had already warned me that I may need refinement trays to get my teeth to their ideal placement. I knew that I definitely had a few stubborn teeth that needed to move a little more. Dr. Goggans examined my teeth and said that he was very happy with my progress, but he did see some areas that need more correction. In order to get my refinement trays, we basically had to start from the beginning…impressions and all!

Michelle sanded off my attachments….yes I said sanded! She told me the sander may hurt a little because your teeth can be sensitive to the cool air and vibrations it gives off. Honestly, this part didn’t bother me at all. After she was done, I looked a little like I had been hit with a powder puff around my mouth. She was nice enough to let me rinse out my mouth and wipe my face before she continued. I must say that although I had become used to the feeling of the attachments on my teeth, I did not miss them when they were gone.

Next, she filed down the ridges a little on my front teeth. They will probably do this again a little when I am completely done with treatment. We then moved on to my absolute least favorite part, IMPRESSIONS!! I don’t know what exactly makes that part so bad, but I’m not a fan of the process. However, they are now using some new kind of “goop” to do the impressions, and I found that it really was not quite as bad as I remembered it being the first time.

So where am I now? The picture on the right gives you some idea of how much my teeth have moved! Now, I’m waiting for my refinement trays to come in, which could be up to six weeks. In the mean time, I am to wear tray 26 until my new aligners arrive. It is definitely different wearing the trays without the attachments, sometimes I feel like I have to hold them down for a minute before they are on my teeth really well. I cannot believe how fast the treatment process has gone by and how much my teeth have already moved. I am not sure how many trays will make up the refinement set, but I think that will fly by too and I can’t wait for that perfect smile.

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PICTURE THIS: YOU AND YOUR FAMILY HAVE TRAVELED to a gorgeous beach location for a week of fun in the sun. You’re about to do some serious sunbathing, swimming, and snorkeling when a family member starts complaining about a bad toothache! Or, a pokey wire is making someone’s cheek bleed. Argh! Few things can kill your vacation spirit faster than a dental problem or dental emergency. So here are a few tips for taking your teeth on vacation!

Before You Go
If you’ve been keeping your regularly scheduled appointments, this is probably not an issue. But if not,callusto make an appointment. As you know, most problems with your teeth or mouth happen gradually. If we can catch a developing issue before you leave on your vacation, you probably won’t need any of the other tips below.

Second, consider making yourself a “dental emergency kit” to pack along on your vacation that includes the following:

Mouthguard(s) – A mouthguard prevents chipped or knocked out teeth. If your plans include any type of high adventure activities (or things as simple as skateboarding or other sports), consider taking a mouthguard.
Floss – You were planning to bring floss along anyway for your nightly dental routine, right? We knew it.
Pain Relievers – Both topical and ingested (but don’t use aspirin as topical pain relief as it can damage your gums).
Orthodontic Wax – If anyone in your group has braces, you probably already know how important this is.
Clove Oil, Pencil w/ Eraser, and Sugarless Gum – See explanation below.
Contact Information – Even if we aren’t close by, you may need to contact us via phone or email.
Some On-The-Spot Tips
Toothache – Rinse your mouth with warm water and apply an icepack to your cheek if it’s swelling. It may be helpful to apply some topical pain reliever or dab clove oil on and around the tooth. If the pain persists, get a hold of us.
Chipped, Broken, Or Knocked Out Teeth – Save the pieces/tooth in milk or salt water and get to emergency care quickly. After an hour, odds decrease that the tooth will go back in where it belongs. If there’s bleeding, put some gauze over the wound.
Lost Filling – Here’s a cool tip—put sugarless (sugarless only!) gum in the spot the filling used to cover. This will keep the pain down and stop other things from getting stuck in the gap.
Something Caught In Your Teeth or Braces – Rinse with warm water and gently floss. If it’s not coming out, DON’T try poking around with something sharp. Give us a call or seek out local care before it causes grief.
Pokey Braces Wires – You can try to move a protruding wire with a pencil eraser. If that doesn’t work and it’s still poking you, cover it up with wax. Not enough wax? You can use sugarless gum or foam earplugs. We don’t want you trying to clip any wires yourself.
Many Of The Same Tips (and more) In A Short Video

When In Doubt, Contact Us
That’s why you’ll want to include our contact information in your emergency kit. We’ll give you advice, or refer you to someone in the area if you need immediate care. We’re here to help you and your family in any way we can. Keep in mind that if you are somewhere with internet access, you can always direct message us on our Facebook page!

Have a fantastic vacation, and thank you for being our valued patient!
Any other tips YOU know about? Share them below!

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